Experimental investigation on the heat transfer performance and pressure drop characteristics of γ-Al2O3/water nanofluid in a double tube counter flow heat exchanger

Document Type: Original Research Paper


1 Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan 98164-161, I. R.Iran

2 Petroleum Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Ahwaz, I. R. Iran

3 Department of Chemical Engineering, Mahshahr branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr, I. R.Iran


In this paper, overall heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of water based γ-Al2O3 nanofluid in a double tube counter flow heat exchanger have been measured experimentally under turbulent flow condition. For better dispersion of γ-Al2O3
nanoparticles in distilled water, magnetic stirrer and ultrasonic vibrator (with a power of 240 kW and frequency of 35 kHz) were implemented. The stabilized γ-Al2O3 /water nanofluid have been examined at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.15 vol. % with variation of flow rates in the range of 7–9 l/min. Nanofluid enters the inner tube of the heat exchanger at different temperatures including 45, 55,and 65 °C. Results demonstrated that increasing the nanofluid flow rate, concentration and inlet temperature can improve the overall heat transfer coefficient and heat transfer rate. Also, the ratio of the overall heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid to that of pure water decreased with increasing the nanofluid flow rate. Meanwhile, the maximum enhancements of the overall heat transfer coefficient and heat transfer rate and friction factor compared with those of base fluid (distilled water) are respectively equal to 19.3%, 10% and 25% which is occurred at the concentration of 0.15 vol. %.


[1] SUS. Choi: Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles, Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (1995) New York, USA.
[2] H. Masuda, A. Ebata, K. Teramae, N. Hishinuma:Alteration of Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity of Liquid by Dispersing Ultra-Fine Particles Dispersion of Al2o3, SiO2 and TiO2 Ultra-Fine Particles, Netsu Bussei 7 (1993) 227-33.
[3] S. Lee, SUS. Choi, S. Li, JA. Eastman: Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Fluids Containing Oxide Nanoparticles, Journal of Heat Transfer 121(1999)280-9.
[4] JA. Eastman, SUS. Choi, S. Li, W. Yu, LJ:Thompson: Anomalously increased effective thermal conductivities of ethylene glycol-based nanofluids containing copper nanoparticles. Applied Physics Letters 78 (2001) 718-20.
[5] O. Mahian, A. Kianifar, SA. Kalogirou, I. Pop, S. Wongwises, A review of the applications of nanofluids in solar energy, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 57 (2013) 582-94.
[6] O. Mahian, A. Kianifar, C. Kleinstreuer, MdA. Al-Nimr, I. Pop, AZ. Sahin et al: A review of entropy generation in nanofluid flow, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 65 (2013) 514-32.
[7] O. Mahian, A. Kianifar, S. Wongwises: Dispersion of ZnO Nanoparticles in a Mixture of Ethylene Glycol–Water, Exploration of Temperature-Dependent Density, and Sensitivity Analysis, J Clust Sci 24 (2013) 1103-14.
[8] L. Godson, DM. Lal, S. Wongwises: Measurement of thermo physical properties of metallic nanofluids for high temperature applications, Nanoscale and microscale thermophysical engineering 14 (2010) 152-73.
[9] B. Farajollahi, SG. Etemad, M. Hojjat: Heat transfer of nanofluids in a shell and tube heat exchanger, Int J Heat Mass Transfer 53 (2010) 12-7.
[10] BC. Pak, YI. Cho: Hydrodynamic and Heat Transfer Study of Dispersed Fluids with Submicron Metallic Oxide Particles, Experimental Heat Transfer 11(1998).
[11] CS. Jwo, LY. Jeng, TP. Teng, CC. Chen:Performance of overall heat transfer in multichannel heat exchanger by alumina nanofluid, J Alloys Compd 504 (2010) 385-S8.
[12] W. Yu, H. Xie, Y. Li, L. Chen, Q. Wang:Experimental investigation on the heat transfer properties of Al2O3 nanofluids using the mixture of ethylene glycol and water as base fluid, Powder Technology 230 (2012) 14-9.
[13] D. Wen, Y. Ding: Experimental investigation into convective heat transfer of nanofluids at the entrance region under laminar flow conditions, Int J Heat Mass Transfer 47 (2004) 5181-8.
[14] SM. Peyghambarzadeh, SH. Hashemabadi, MS.Jamnani, SM. Hoseini: Improving the cooling performance of automobile radiator withAl2O3/water nanofluid, Appl Therm Eng 31(10)(2011) 1833-8.
[15] SM. Peyghambarzadeh, SH. Hashemabadi, SM.Hoseini, M. Seifi Jamnani: Experimental study of heat transfer enhancement using water/ethylene glycol based nanofluids as a new coolant for car radiators, Int Commun Heat Mass 38 (2011) 1283-90.
[16] AR. Sajadi, MH. Kazemi: Investigation of turbulent convective heat transfer and pressure drop of TiO2/water nanofluid in circular tube, Int Commun Heat Mass 38 (2011) 1474-8.
[17] R. Lotfi, AM. Rashidi, A. Amrollahi: Experimental study on the heat transfer enhancement of MWNTwater nanofluid in a shell and tube heat exchanger, Int Commun Heat Mass 39 (2012) 108-11.
[18] M. Hemmat Esfe, S. Saedodin: Turbulent forced convection heat transfer and thermophysical properties of Mgo–water nanofluid with consideration of different nanoparticles diameter, an empirical study, J Therm Anal Calorim 119 (2014)1205-13.
[19] SM. Peyghambarzadeh, SH. Hashemabadi, M.Naraki, Y. Vermahmoudi: Experimental study of overall heat transfer coefficient in the application of dilute nanofluids in the car radiator, Appl Therm Eng 52 (2013) 8-16.
[20] M. Hemmat Esfe, S . Saedodin, O. Mahian, S.Wongwises: Heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of COOH-functionalized DWCNTs/water nanofluid in turbulent flow at low concentrations, Int J Heat Mass Transfer 73 (2014)186-94.
[21] AAR. Darzi, M. Farhadi, K. Sedighi: Heat transfer and flow characteristics of AL2O3–water nanofluid in a double tube heat exchanger, Int Commun Heat Mass 47 (2013) 105-12.
[22] W. Duangthongsuk, S. Wongwises: An experimental study on the heat transfer performance and pressure drop of TiO2-water nanofluids flowing under a turbulent flow regime, Int J Heat Mass Transfer 53(2010) 334-44.
[23] A. Zamzamian, SN. Oskouie, A. Doosthoseini, A.Joneidi, M. Pazouki: Experimental investigation of forced convective heat transfer coefficient in nanofluids of Al2O3/EG and CuO/EG in a double pipe and plate heat exchangers under turbulent flow,Exp Therm Fluid Sci 35 (2011) 495-502.
[24] AA. Abbasian Arani, J. Amani: Experimental study on the effect of TiO2–water nanofluid on heat transfer and pressure drop, Exp Therm Fluid Sci 42(2012) 107-15.
[25] M. Hemmat Esfe, S. Saedodin, M. Mahmoodi:Experimental studies on the convective heat transfer performance and thermophysical properties of MgO–water nanofluid under turbulent flow, Exp Therm Fluid Sci 52 (2014) 68-78.
[26] B.H. Chun, H. Kang, S. Kim: Effect of alumina nanoparticles in the fluid on heat transfer in doublepipe heat exchanger system, Korean J Chem Eng 25(2008) 966-71.
[27] R. Aghayari, H. Maddah, F. Ashori, A. Hakiminejad,M. Aghili: Effect of nanoparticles on heat transfer in mini double-pipe heat exchangers in turbulent flow,Heat Mass Transfer (2014) 1-6.
[28] AJN. Khalifa, MA. Banwan: Effect of Volume Fraction of γ‐Al2O3 Nanofluid on Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger, Heat Transfer Eng 36 (2015) 1387-96.
[29] D. Madhesh, S. Kalaiselvam: Experimental study on the heat transfer and flow properties of Ag–ethylene glycol nanofluid as a coolant, Heat Mass Transfer 50 ( 2014) 1597-607.
[30] MM. Sarafraz, F. Hormozi: Intensification of forced convection heat transfer using biological nanofluid in a double-pipe heat exchanger, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 66 (2015) 279-89.
[31] RS. Khedkar, SS. Sonawane, KL. Wasewar: Heat transfer study on concentric tube heat exchanger using TiO2–water based nanofluid, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 57(2014) 163-169.
[32] D. Kim, Y. Kwon, Y. Cho, C. Li, S. Cheong, Y.Hwang et al: Convective heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids under laminar and turbulent flow conditions, Curr Appl Phys 9(2, Supplement) (2009)119-23.
[33] KB. Anoop, T. Sundararajan, SK. Das: Effect of particle size on the convective heat transfer in nanofluid in the developing region, Int J Heat Mass Transfer 52(9–10) (2009) 2189-95.
[34] M. Nasiri, SG. Etemad, R. Bagheri: Experimental heat transfer of nanofluid through an annular duct,International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 38 (2011) 958-63.
[35] FM . White: Viscous fluid flow, Second Edition ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc (2006).) 151-70.
[36] Y. Xuan, W. Roetzel: Conceptions for heat transfer correlation of nanofluids, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 43 (2000) 3701-7.
[37] A. Einstein: A new determination of the molecular dimensions, Annphysics. 19 (1906) 289-306.
[38] JC. Maxwell: A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. Oxford, UK: ClarendonPress (1881).
[39] W. Williams, J. Buongiorno, LW. Hu: Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer and Pressure Loss of Alumina/Water and Zirconia/Water Nanoparticle Colloids (Nanofluids) in Horizontal Tubes, Journal of Heat Transfer 130(2008) 412-24.
[40] RJ. Moffat: Describing the uncertainties in experimental results, Exp Therm Fluid Sci 1(1)1988 3-17.
[41] V. Gnielinski: New equations for heat and masstransfer in turbulent pipe and channel flow, Int Chem Eng 16 (1976) 359-68.
[42] AS. Foust, G. Christian: A. Non-Boiling Heat Transfer Co-Efficients in Annuli, AIChE J 36 (1940)541–54.
[43] M. Mehrabian, S. Mansouri, G. Sheikhzadeh: The overall heat transfer characteristics of a double pipe heat exchanger: comparison of experimental data with predictions of standard correlations,International Journal of Engineering Transaction B:Applications 15 (2002) 395-406.
[44] FM. White:Fluid Mechanics fourth ed ed. New York:McGraw-Hill, Inc (2001).
[45] R. Aghayari, H. Maddah, F. Ashori, M. Aghili: The Experimental Study of Nanpparticles Effect on Thermal Efficiency of Double Pipe Heat Exchangers in Turbulent Flow, Transport Phenomena in Nano and Micro Scales 2 (2014) 140-8.
[46] Y. Vermahmoudi, SM. Peyghambarzadeh, SH.Hashemabadi, M. Naraki: Experimental investigation on heat transfer performance of /water nanofluid in an air-finned heat exchanger, European Journal of Mechanics - B/Fluids 44 ( 2014) 32-41.