2013
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Mixed Convection of Variable Properties Al2O3EGWater Nanofluid in a TwoDimensional LidDriven Enclosure
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In this paper, mixed convection of Al2O3EGWater nanofluid in a square liddriven enclosure is investigated numerically. The focus of this study is on the effects of variable thermophysical properties of the nanofluid on the heat transfer characteristics. The top moving and the bottom stationary horizontal walls are insulated, while the vertical walls are kept at different constant temperatures. The study is carried out for Richardson numbers of 0.01–1000, the solid volume fractions of 0–0.05 and the Grashof number of 104. The transport equations are solved numerically with a finite volume approach using the SIMPLER algorithm. The results show that the Nusselt number is mainly affected by the viscosity, density and conductivity variations. For low Richardson numbers, although viscosity increases by increasing the nanoparticles volume fraction, due to high intensity convection of enhanced conductivity nanofluid, the average Nusselt number increases for both constant and variable cases. However, for high Richardson numbers, as the volume fraction of nanoparticles increases heat transfer enhancement occurs for the constant properties cases but deterioration in heat transfer occurs for the variable properties cases. The distinction is due to underestimation of viscosity of the nanofluid by the constant viscosity model in the constant properties cases and states important effects of temperature dependency of thermophysical properties, in particular the viscosity distribution in the domain.
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75
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G.A.
Sheikhzadeh
Department of Thermofluids, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Research Institute, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Department of Thermofluids, Faculty of Mechanical
Iran
sheikhz@kashanu.ac.ir


H.
Khorasanizadeh
Department of Thermofluids, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Research Institute, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Department of Thermofluids, Faculty of Mechanical
Iran


S.P.
Ghaffari
Department of Thermofluids, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Research Institute, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Department of Thermofluids, Faculty of Mechanical
Iran
Ethylene Glycol
Mixed convection
Nanofluid
Variable properties
[[1] M.A.R. Sharif, Laminar mixed convection in shallowinclined driven cavities with hot moving lid on top andcooled from bottom, Journal of Applied ThermalEngineering 27 (2007) 10361042. ##[2] K.M. Khanafer, A.M. AlAmiri, I. Pop, Numericalsimulation of unsteady mixed convection in a drivencavity, using an externally excited sliding lid, EuropeanJournal of Mechanics B/Fluids 26 (2007) 669687. ##[3] S. M. Aminossadati, B. Ghasemi, A numerical study ofmixed convection in a horizontal channel with a discreetheat source in an open cavity, European Journal ofMechanics B/Fluids 28 (2009) 590598. ##[4] K.Venkatasubbaiah, The effect of buoyancy on thestability mixed convection flow over a horizontal plate,European Journal of Mechanics  B/Fluids 30 (2011)526533. ##[5] X.Q. Wang, A.S. Mujumdar, Heat transfercharacteristics of nanofluids: a review, InternationalJournal of Thermal Science 46 (2007) 119. ##[6] J. Choi, Y. Zhang, Numerical simulation of laminarforced convection heat transfer of Al2O3waternanofluid in a pipe with return bend, InternationalJournal of Thermal Science 55 (2012) 90102. ##[7] W. Daungthongsuk, S.Wongwises,A critical review ofconvective heat transfer of nanofluids, Renewable &Sustainable Energy Reviews 11 (2007) 797817. ##[8] P.K. Namburu, D.K. Das, K.M. Tanguturi, R.S. Vajjha,Numerical study of turbulent flow and heat transfercharacteristics of nanofluids considering variableproperties, International Journal of Thermal Science 48(2009) 290302. ##[9] R.K. Tiwari, M.K. Das, Heat transfer augmentation in atwosided liddriven differentially heated square cavityutilizing nanofluids, International Journal of Heat andMass Transfer 50 (2007) 2002–2018. ##[11] M. Muthtamilselvan, P. Kandaswamy, J. Lee, Heattransfer enhancement of copper_water nanofluids in aliddriven enclosure, Communications in NonlinearScience and Numerical Simulation 15 (6) (2009) 15011510. ##[12] M. Shahi, A.H. Mahmoudi, F. Talebi, Numerical studyof mixed convective cooling in a square cavityventilated and partially heated from the below utilizingnanofluid, International Communications in Heat andMass Transfer 37 (2010) 201–213. ##[13] E. Abunada, A. J. Chamkha, Mixed convection flowin a liddriven inclined enclosure filled with a nanofluid,European Journal of Mechanics  B/Fluids 29 (2010)472482. ##[14] M. M. Billah, M. M. Rahman, M. Shahabuddin, A. K.Azad, Heat transfer enhancement of Copperwaternanofluids in an inclined liddriven triangular enclosure,Journal of Scientific Research 3 (2) (2011) 525538. ##[15] A. J. Chamkha, E. Abunada, Mixed convection flowin single and doublelid driven square cavities filledwith waterAl2O3 nanofluid: Effect of viscosity models,European Journal of Mechanics  B/Fluids 36 (2012) 8296. ##[16] H. Khorasanizadeh, M. Nikfar, J. Amani, Entropygeneration of Cuwater nanofluid mixed convection in acavity, European Journal of Mechanics  B/Fluids 37(2013) 143152. ##[17] G. A. Sheikhzadeh, H. Teimouri, M. Mahmoodi,Numerical study of mixed convection of nanofluid in aconcentric annulus with rotating inner cylinder,Transport Phenomena in Nano and Micro Scales 1(2013) 2636. ##[19] X. Wang, X. Xu, S.U.S. Choi, Thermal conductivity ofnanoparticle–fluid mixture, Journal of Thermophysicsand Heat Transfer 13 (1999) 474–480. ##[20] P.K. Namburu, D.P. Kulkarni, D. Misra, D.K. Das,Viscosity of copper oxide nanoparticles dispersed inethylene glycol and water mixture, ExperimentalThermal and Fluid Science 32 (2007) 397402. ##[21] P.K. Namburu, D.P. Kulkarni, A. Dandekar, D.K. Das,Experimental investigation of viscosity and specific heatof silicon dioxide nanofluids, Micro Nano Letters 2(2007) 6771. ##[22] B.C. Sahoo, R.S. Vajjha, R. Ganguli, G.A. Chukwu,D.K. Das, Determination of rheological behavior ofaluminum oxide nanofluid and development of newviscosity correlations, Petroleum Science andTechnology 27 (2009) 17571770. ##[23] R.S. Vajjha, D.K. Das, Experimental determination ofthermal conductivity of three nanofluids anddevelopment of new correlations, International Journalof Heat and Mass Transfer 52 (2009) 46754682. ##[24] R.S. Vajjha, D.K. Das, Specific heat measurement ofthree nanofluids and development of new correlations,International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 131(2009) 17. ##[25] R.S. Vajjha, D.K. Das, B.M. Mahagaonkar, Densitymeasurement of different nanofluids and theircomparison with theory, Petroleum Science andTechnology 27 (2009) 612624. ##[26] E. AbuNada, A.J. Chamkha, Effect of nanofluidvariable properties on natural convection in enclosuresfilled with a CuOEGWater nanofluid, InternationalJournal of Thermal Science 49 (2010) 23392352. ##[27] E. AbuNada, Z. Masoud, H.F. Oztop, A. Campo,Effect of nanofluid variable properties on naturalconvection in enclosures, International Journal ofThermal Science 49 (2010) 479491. ##[28] G.A. Sheikhzadeh, M. Ebrahim Qomi, N. Hajialigol,A. Fattahi, Numerical study of mixed convection flowsin a liddriven enclosure filled with nanofluid usingvariable properties, Results in Physics 2 (2012) 513. ##[29] S. Mazrouei Sebdani, M. Mahmoodi, S. M. Hashemi,Effect of nanofluid variable properties on mixedconvection in a square cavity, International Journal ofThermal Science 52 (2012) 112126. ##[30] C.H. Chon, K.D. Kihm, S.P. Lee, S.U.S. ChoiEmpirical correlation finding the role of temperatureand particle size for nanofluid (Al2O3) thermalconductivity enhancement, Applied Physics Letters 87(2005) 153107. ##[31] B.C. Pak, Y.I. Cho, Hydrodynamic and heat transferstudy of dispersed fluids with submicron metallic oxideparticles, Experimental Heat Transfer 11 (1999) 151170. ##[32] ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals. American Societyof Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioningEngineers Inc., Atlanta, GA, 2005. ##[33] F.P. Incropera, D.P. DeWitt, Introduction to HeatTransfer, third ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York,1996. ##[34] R.S. Vajjha, D.K. Das, D.P. Kulkarni, Development ofnew correlations for convective heat transfer andfriction factor in turbulent regime for nanofluids,International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 53(2010) 46074618. ##[35] S.V. Patankar, Numerical Heat Transfer and FluidFlow, McGrawHill, 1980. ##[36] B. Ghasemi, S. M. Aminossadati, Natural convection heattransfer in an inclined enclosure filled with a WaterCuo Nanofluid,Numerical Heat Transfer 55 (2009) 807823. ##]
Moving Lids Direction Effects on MHD Mixed Convection in a TwoSided LidDriven Enclosure Using Nanofluid
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Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection flow of Cu–water nanofluid inside a twosided liddriven square enclosure with adiabatic horizontal walls and differentially heated sidewalls has been investigated numerically. The effects of moving lids direction, variations of Richardson number, Hartmann number, and volume fraction of nanoparticles on flow and temperature fields have been studied. The obtained results show that for a constant Grashof number (), the rate of heat transfer increases with a decrease in the Richardson and Hartmann numbers. Furthermore, an increase of the volume fraction of nanoparticles may result in enhancement or deterioration of the heat transfer performance depending on the value of the Hartmann and Richardson numbers and the configuration of the moving lids. Also, it is found that in the presence of magnetic field, the nanoparticles have their maximum positive effect when the top lid moves rightward and the bottom one moves leftward.
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93
102


J.
Rahmannezhad
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birjand, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University
Iran


M.
Kalteh
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Guilan, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University
Iran
mkalteh@guilan.ac.ir
Magnetic field
Mixed convection
Nanofluid
Numerical Simulation
Two sided liddriven
[[1] Kh. Al.Salem, H. F.Öztop, I. Pop, Y.Varol, Effects ofmoving lid direction on MHD mixed convection in alinearly heated cavity, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 55(2012) 11031112. ##[2] J. Sarkar, A critical review on convective heat transfercorrelations of nanofluids, Renewable and SustainableEnergy Reviews. 15 (2011) 32713277. ##[3] L. Godson, B. Raja, D.M. Lal, S. Wongwises,Enhancement of heat transfer using nanofluidsoverview, Renewable and Sustainable EnergyReviews. 14 (2010) 629641. ##[4] K. Khanafer, K. Vafai, M. Lightstone, Bouyancyheat transfer enhancement in a twoenclosure utilizing nanofluid, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf.46 (2003) 36393653. ##[5] M.C. Ece, E. Buyuk, Naturalconvection flow under amagnetic field in an inclined rectangular enclosure heated and cooled on adjacent walls, Fluid DynamicsResearch 38 (8) (2006) 564590. ##[6] S.M. Aminossadati, B. Ghasemi, Natural convectioncooling of a localized heat source atnanofluidfilled enclosure, European Journal ofMechanics B/Fluids 28 (2009) 630 ##[7] Z. Alloui, P. Vasseur, M. Reggio, Natural convectionof nanofluids in a shallow cavity heated from below,International journal of Thermal sciences385393. ##[8] R.K. Tiwari, M.K. Das, Heat transfer augmentation in atwosided liddriven differentially heated square cavityutilizing nanofluids, International Journal of Heat andMass Transfer 50 (2007) 2002 ##[9] M. Muthtamilselvan, P. Kandaswamy, J. Lee, Heattransfer enhancement of copperliddriven enclosure, Communications in NonlinearScience and Numerical Simulations 15 (2010) 15011510. ##[10] H. Nemati, M. Farhadi, K. Sedighi, E. FattahiA.A.R Darzi, Lattice Boltzmann simulation ofnanofluid in lid driven cavity, InternationalCommunications of Heat and Mass Transfer 37 (2010)15281534. ##[11] A. Arefmanesh, M. Mahmoodi, Effects of uncertaintiesof viscosity models for Al2mixed convection numerical simulations, Internationaljournal of Thermal sciences 50 (2011) 1706 ##[12] A.A. Abbasian Arani, S. Mazrouei Sebdani, M.Mahmoodi, A. Ardeshiri, M. Aliakbari, Numericalstudy of mixed convection flow in a lidwith sinusoidal heating on sidewalls using nanofluids,Superlattices and Microstructures 51 (2012) 893 ##[13] T. Grosan, C. Revnic, I. Pop, D.B. Ingham, Magneticfield and internal heat generation effects on the freeconvection in a rectangular cavity filled with a porousmedium, International Journal of Heat and MassTransfer 52 (2009) 1525–1533. ##[14] M.M. Rahman, M.A. Alim, M.M.A. Sarker, Numericalstudy on the conjugate effect of joule heating andmagnetohydrodynamics mixed convection in anobstructed liddriven square cavityJournal of Heat and Mass Transfer 37 (2010) 524 ##[15] S. Sivasankaran, A. Malleswaran, J. Lee, P. SundarHydromagnetic combined convection in a liddriven cavity with sinusoidal boundary conditions on both sidewalls, International Journal of Heat and MassTransfer 54 (2011) 512–525. ##[16] H. F. Oztop, Kh. AlSalem, I. Pop, MHD mixedconvection in a liddriven cavity with corner heater,International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54(2011) 3494–3504. ##[17] C. Revnic, T. Grosan, I. Pop, D.B. Ingham, Magneticfield effect on the unsteady free convection flow in asquare cavity filled with a porous medium with aconstant heat generation, International Journal of Heatand Mass Transfer 54 (2011) 1734–1742. ##[18] B. Ghasemi, S.M. Aminossadati, A. Raisi, Magneticfield effect on natural convection in a nanofluidfilledsquare enclosure, International Journal of ThermalSciences. 50 (2011) 17481756. ##[19] M.A.Teamah,W.M.ElMaghlany, Augmentation ofnatural convective heat transfer in square cavity byutilizing nanofluids in the presence of magnetic fieldand uniform heat generation/absorption, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 58 (2012) 130142. ##[20] H. Nemati, M. Farhadi, K. Sedighi, H.R. Ashorynejad,E. Fattahi, Magnetic field effects on naturalconvection flow of nanofluid in a rectangular cavityusing the Lattice Boltzmann model, Scientia Iranica B19 (2012) 303–310. ##[21] H.C. Brinkman, The viscosity of concentratedsuspensions and solutions, Journal of Chemical Physics20 (1952) 571–581. ##[22] H.E. Patel, T. Pradeep, T. Sundararajan, A. Dasgupta,N. Dasgupta, S.K. Das, A micro convection model forthermal conductivity of nanofluid, PramanaJ. Phys.65 (2005) 863–869 ##[23] K.A.Hoffmann, S.T. Chiang, Computational FluidDynamics,Engineering Education System. 1 (2000). ##[24] S.M. Aminossadati, A. Kargar, B. Ghasemi, Adaptivenetworkbased fuzzy inference system analysis ofmixed convection in a twosided liddriven cavityfilled with a nanofluid, International Journal ofThermal Sciences. 52 (2012) 102111.##]
Influence of Interface Thermal Resistance on Relaxation Dynamics of MetalDielectric Nanocomposite Materials under Ultrafast Pulse Laser Excitation
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Nanocomposite materials, including noble metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric host medium, are interesting because of their optical properties linked to surface plasmon resonance phenomena. For studding of nonlinear optical properties and/or energy transfer process, these materials may be excited by ultrashort pulse laser with a temporal width varying from some femtoseconds to some hundreds of picoseconds. Following of absorption of light energy by metaldielectric nanocomposite material, metal nanoparticles are heated. Then, the thermal energy is transferred to the host medium through particledielectric interface. On the one hand, nonlinear optical properties of such materials depend on their thermal responses to laser pulse, and on the other hand different parameters, such as pulse laser and medium thermodynamic characterizes, govern on the thermal responses of medium to laser pulse. Here, influence of thermal resistance at particlesurrounding medium interface on thermal response of such material under ultrashort pulse laser excitation is investigated. For this, we used three temperature model based on energy exchange between different bodies of medium. The results show that the interface thermal resistance plays a crucial role on nanoparticle cooling dynamics, so that the relaxation characterized time increases by increasing of interface thermal resistance.
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103
109


M.
Rashidi Huyeh
Department of Physics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
Department of Physics, University of Sistan
Iran
majid.rashidi@phys.usb.ac.ir


N.
Moosavinejad
Department of Physics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
Department of Physics, University of Sistan
Iran
Interface thermal resistance
Thermal dynamics
Ultrashort pulse laser
Metaldielectric nanocomposites
Surface PlasmonResonance
[[1] B. Li, Now you hear me, now you don’t, Naturematerials, 9 (2010) 962963. ##[2] N. Li, J. Ren, L. Wang, G. Zhang, P. Hanggi and B.Li, Phononics: Manipulating heat flow withelectronic analogs and beyond, Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(2012) 10451066. ##[3] K.P rashant Jain, Xiaohua Hunng, I. ElSayed, and M.ElSayed, Noble Metals on the Nanoscale: Opticaland Photothermal Properties and Some Applicationsin Imaging, Sensing, Biology, and Medicine,Accounts Of Chemical Research,41 (2008) 15781586. ##[4] T.W. Odom, J.L. Huang, P. Kim, C.M. Lieber,Atomic structure and electronic properties ofsinglewalled carbon nanotubes, Nature 391(1998) 62–64. ##[5] M. Grujicic, G. Cao, B. Gersten, Reactor lengthscalemodeling of chemical vapor deposition ofcarbon nanotubes, J. Mater. Sci. 38(8) (2003)1819–30. ##[6] H. Endo, K. Kuwana, K. Saito, D. Qian, R. AndrewsE.A. Grulke, CFD prediction of carbon nanotubeproduction rate in a CVD reactor, Chem.Phys. Lett.387 (2004) 307–311. ##[7] K. Kuwana, K. Saito, Modeling CVD synthesis ofcarbon nanotubes: nanoparticle formation fromferrocene, Carbon 43(10) (2005) 2088–95. ##[8] A.A. Puretzky, D.B. Geohegan, S. Jesse, I.N.Ivanov, G. Eres, In situ measurements andmodeling of carbon nanotube array growthkinetics during chemical vapor deposition, Appl.Phys. A 81(2) (2005) 223–40. ##[9] C.L. Andrew, W.K.S. Chui, Modeling of the carbonnanotube chemical vapor deposition process usingmethane and acetylene precursor gases,Nanotechnology, 19(16) (2008) 165607–14. ##[10] L. Pan, Y. Nakayama, H. Ma, Modelling the growthof carbon nanotubes produced by chemical vapordeposition, Carbon 49 (2011) 854861. ##[11] C.L. Yaws, Chemical Properties Handbook,McGrawHill,Newyork 1999. ##[12] M. RashidiHuyeh and B. Palpant, Thermal responseof nanocomposite materials under pulsed laserexcitation, J. Appl. Phys, 96 (2004) 44754482. ##[13] Yannick Guillet, Majid RashidiHuyeh, and BrunoPalpant, Influence of laser pulse characteristics on thehot electron contribution to the thirdorder nonlinearoptical response of gold nanoparticles, Phys. Rev. B79 (2009) 04541019. ##[14] Francesco Banfi, Vincent Juvé Damiano Nardi,Stefano Dal Conte, Claudio Giannetti, GabrieleFerrini, Natalia Del Fatti, and Fabrice Vallée,Temperature dependence of the thermal boundaryresistivity of glassembedded metal nanoparticles,Appl. Phys. Let. 100 (2012) 01190213. ##[15] Bruno Palpant, Yannick Guillet, Majid RashidiHuyeh, and Dominique Prot, Gold nanoparticleassemblies: Thermal behaviour under opticalexcitation, Gold Bulletin 41 (2008) 105115. ##[16] Yannick Guillet, Majid RashidiHuyeh, DominiqueProt and Bruno Palpant, Gold nanoparticleassemblies: interplay between thermal effects andoptical response, Gold Bulletin 41, (2008) 341348. ##[17] Mark E. Siemens, Qing Li, Ronggui Yang, Keith A.Nelson, Erik H. Anderson, Margaret M. Murnane &Henry C. Kapteyn, Quasiballistic thermal transportfrom nanoscale interfaces observed using ultrafastcoherent soft Xray beams, Nature Materials 9 (2010)26 – 30. ##[18] Vincent Juvé, Mattia Scardamaglia, Paolo Maioli,Aurélien Crut1, Samy Merabia, Laurent Joly, NataliaDel Fatti, and Fabrice Vallée, Cooling dynamics andthermal interface resistance of glassembedded metalnanoparticles, Phys. Rev. B 80 (2009) 19540616. ##[19] Orla M. Wilson, Xiaoyuan Hu, David G. Cahill, andPaul V. Braun, Colloidal metal particles as probes ofnanoscale thermal transport in fluids, Phys. Rev. B 66(2002) 22430116. ##[20] Y. Hamanaka, J. Kuwabata, I. Tanahashi, S. Omi, andA. Nakamuka, Ultrafast electron relaxation viabreathing vibration of gold nanocrystals embedded ina dielectric medium, Phys. Rev. B 63 (2001)10430215. ##[21] David G. Cahill, Wayne K. Ford, Kenneth E.Goodson, Gerald D. Mahan, Arun Majumdar,Humphrey J. Maris, Roberto Merlin, Simon R.Phillpot, Nanoscale thermal transport, J. Appl. Phys.93 (2003) 793818. ##[22] M. RashidiHuyeh, S. Volz, and B. Palpant, NonFourier heat transport in metaldielectric coreshellnanoparticles under ultrafast laser pulse excitation,Phys. Rev. B 78 (2008) 12540818.##]
Effect of Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Characteristics On Solar Absorptivity
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Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) has been used in many different fields of science and technology, due to its great structural characteristics. Solar selective surface is an important application of this type porous material. This paper investigates the effect of nanoporous AAO properties, including; film thickness, pore area percentage and pore diameter, on absorption spectra in the range of solar radiation. The parameters were verified individually depending on anodization condition, and the absorption spectra were characterized using spectrophotometer analysis. The results showed that the absorptivity was increased with growth of the film thickness. Furthermore, increasing the pore diameter shifted the absorption spectra to the right range, and vice versa. The investigation revealed the presence of an optimum pore area percentage around 14% in which the absorptivity was at its maximum value.
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H.
Moghadam
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
Department of Chemical Engineering, University
Iran
moghadam.hamid@gmail.com


A.
Samimi
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
Department of Chemical Engineering, University
Iran
a.samimi@eng.usb.ac.ir


A.
Behzadmehr
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University
Iran
amin.bahzadmehr@eng.usb.ac.ir
Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO)
Film thickness
Pore diameter
Pore area percentage
Solar absorptivity
[[1] Y.Y. Zhu, G.Q. Ding, J.N. Ding, N.Y. Yuan: AFM,SEM and TEM Studies on Porous Anodic Alumina,J. of Nanoscale Res Lett, 5 (2010) 725734. ##[2] M. Jung, H.S. Lee, H.L. Park, H.j. Lim, S.i. Mho:Fabrication of the uniform CdTe quantum dot arrayon GaAs substrate utilizing nanoporous aluminamasks, J. of Current Applied Physics, 6 (2006)10161019. ##[3] H. Masuda, M. Satoh: Fabrication of Gold NanodotArray Using Anodic Porous Alumina as anEvaporation Mask, J. of Japanese Journal ofApplied Physics, 35 (1996) L126L129. ##[4] C.H. Huang, H.Y. Lin, Y. Tzeng, C.H. Fan, C.Y.Liu, C.Y. Li, C.W. Huang, N.K. Chen, H.C.Chui: Optical characteristics of pore size on porousanodic aluminium oxide films with embedded silvernanoparticles, J. of Sensors and Actuators A, 180(2012) 4954. ##[5] L. Zaraska, G.D. Sulka, M. Jaskuła: Porous anodicalumina membranes formed by anodization ofAA1050 alloy as templates for fabrication ofmetallic nanowire arrays, J. of Surface & CoatingsTechnology, 205 (2010) 24322437. ##[6] G. Ali, M. Ahmadb, J.I. Akhterb, M. Maqboolc, S.O.Choa: Novel structure formation at the bottomsurface of porous anodic alumina fabricated bysingle step anodization process, J. of Micron, 41(2010) 560564. ##[7] T. Nagaura, F. Takeuchi, S. Inoue: Fabrication andstructural control of anodic alumina films withinverted cone porous structure using multistepanodizing, J. of Electrochimica Acta, 53 (2008)21092114. ##[8] J. Ding, Y. Zhu, N. Yuan, G. Ding: Reduction ofnanoparticle deposition during fabrication of porousanodic alumina, J. of Thin Solid Films, 520 (2012)43214325. ##[9] H. Jha, Y.Y. Song, M. Yang, P. Schmuki: Porousanodic alumina: Amphiphilic and magneticallyguidable microrafts, J. of ElectrochemistryCommunications, 13 (2011) 934937. ##[10] M. Ghriba, R. Ouertani, M. Gaidi, N. Khedher, M.B.Salem, H. Ezzaouia: Effect of annealing onphotoluminescence and optical properties of porousanodic alumina films formed in sulfuric acid forsolar energy applications, J. of Applied SurfaceScience, 258 (2012) 49955000. ##[11] B. Carlsson, K. Moller, U. Frei, S. Brunold, M.Kohl: Comparison between predicted and actuallyobserved inservice degradation of a nickelpigmented anodized aluminium absorber coating for solar DHW systems, J. of Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 61 (2000) 223238. ##[12] D. Ding, W. Cai, M. Long, H. Wu, Y. Wu: Optical,structural and thermal characteristics of Cu–CuAl2O4 hybrids deposited inanodic aluminumoxide as selective solar absorber, J. of Solar EnergyMaterials & Solar Cells, 94 (2010) 15781581. ##[13] H.M. Chen, C.F. Hsin, R.S. Liu, S.F. Hu, C.Y.Huangb: Controlling Optical Properties ofAluminum Oxide Using ElectrochemicalDeposition, J. of Journal of The ElectrochemicalSociety, 154 (2007) K11K14. ##[14] X.H. Wang, T. Akahane, H. Orikasa, T. Kyotani:Brilliant and tunable color of carboncoated thinanodic aluminum oxide films, J. of Applied physicsletters, 91 (2007) 90819083. ##[15] Q. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Gu, Z. Li, H. Sun: Influence ofAl substrate on the optical properties of porousanodic alumina films, J. of Materials Letters, 74(2012) 137139. ##[16] Q. Xu, H.Y. Sun, Y.H. Yang, L.H. Liu, Z.Y. Li:Optical properties and color generation mechanismof porous anodic alumina films, J. of AppliedSurface Science, 258 (2011) 18261830. ##[17] T.S. Shih, P.S. Wei, Y.S. Huang: Opticalproperties of anodic aluminum oxide films onAl1050 alloys, J. of Surface & CoatingsTechnology, 202 (2008) 32983305. ##[18] A. Santos, V.S. Balderrama, M. Alba, P. Formentín,J. FerréBorrull, J. Pallarès, L.F. Marsal: TunableFabryPérot interferometer based on nanoporousanodic alumina for optical biosensing purposes, J.of Nanoscale Research Letters, 7 (2012) 370373. ##[19] T. PAVLOVIC, A. IGNATIEV: Optical propertiesof spectrally selective anodically coatedelectrolytically colored aluminum surfaces, J. ofSolar Energy Materials, 16 (1987) 319331. ##[20] Y. Lei, W. Cai, G. Wilde: Highly orderednanostructures with tunable size, shape andproperties A new way to surface nanopatterningusing ultrathin alumina masks, J. of Progress inMaterials Science, 52 (2007) 465539. ##[21] A.L. AvilaMarin: Volumetric receivers in SolarThermal Power Plants with Central ReceiverSystem technology: A review, J. of Solar Energy 85(2011) 891910.##]
Using Lattice Boltzmann Method to Investigate the Effects of Porous Media on Heat Transfer from Solid Block inside a Channel
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2
A numerical investigation of forced convection in a channel with hot solid block inside a square porous block mounted on a bottom wall was carried out. The lattice Boltzmann method was applied for numerical simulations. The fluid flow in the porous media was simulated by BrinkmanForchheimer model. The effects of parameters such as porosity and thermal conductivity ratio over flow pattern and thermal field were investigated. In this paper the effects of mentioned parameters were discussed in detail. The result show with increasing the thermal conductivity ratio and porosity the fluid temperature will reduce.
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123


N.
Janzadeh
Islamic Azad University Science and Research Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Amol, Iran
Islamic Azad University Science and Research
Iran


M.
Aghajani Delavar
Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran
Babol Noshirvani University of Technology,
Iran
m.a.delavar@nit.ac.ir
Effective Thermal Conductivity
Heat transfer
Lattice Boltzmann method
Reynolds number
[[1] P.C. Huang, K. Vafai, Analysis of forced convectionenhancement in a channel using porous blocks, AIAA J.Thermophys. Heat Transfer 18 (1994) 563–573. ##[2] M. Kaviany, Laminar flow through a porous channelbounded by isothermal parallel plate, Int. J. HeatMassTransfer 28 (1985) 851–858. ##[3] T. Rizk, C. Kleinstreuer, Forced convective coolingof a linear array of blocks in open and porous matrixchannels, Heat. Transfer Eng 12 (1991) 4–47. ##[4] J.M. Zhang, W.H. Sutton , F.C. Lai, Enhancement ofheat transfer using porous convectiontoradiationconverter for laminar flow in a circular duct, Int. J. HeatMass Transfer 40 (1996) 39–48. ##[5] A. Hadim, Forced convection in a porous channelwith localized heat sources, ASME J. Heat Transfer 8(1994) 465–472. ##[6] M.K. Alkam, M.A. AlNimr, M.O. Hamdan,Enhancing heat transfer in parallel plate channels byusing porous inserts, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 44 (2001)931–938. ##[7] S. Succi, The Lattice Boltzmann Equation for FluidDynamics and Beyond, ClarendonPress, Oxford, 2001. ##[8] A. A. Mohammad, Lattice Boltzmann Method,Fundamentals and Engineering Applications withComputer Codes, Springer, London, England, 2011. ##[9] P. H. Kao, Y. H. Chen, R. J. Yang: Simulations of themacroscopic and mesoscopic natural convection flowswithin rectangular cavities, International Journal of Heatand Mass Transfer, 51(2008) 3776–3793. ##[10] Z. Guo, T.S. Zhao, Lattice Boltzmann model forincompressible flows through porous media, Phys. Rev.E 66 (2002) 036304. ##[11] T. Seta, E. Takegoshi, K. Okui, Lattice Boltzmannsimulation of natural convection in porous media, Math.Comput. Simul. 72 (2006) 195–200. ##[12] S. Ergun, Chem. Eng. Prog, 48(1952) 89. ##[13] P.X. Jiang, X.C Lu, Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer,49 (2006) 1685 ##[14] S. Mahmud and R. A. Fraser, Flow, thermal, andentropy generation characteristics inside a porouschannel with viscous dissipation, International Journal ofThermal Sciences, 44 (2005) 2132. ##[15] W. M. Kays, M. E. Crawford, Solutions Manual,Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, third ed., McGrawHill, New York, 1993.##]
MHD Nanofluid Flow Analysis in a SemiPorous Channel by a Combined Series Solution Method
2
2
In this paper, Least Square Method (LSM) and Differential Transformation Method (DTM) are used to solve the problem of laminar nanofluid flow in a semiporous channel in the presence of transverse magnetic field. Due to existence some shortcomings in each method, a novel and efficient method named LSDTM is introduced which omitted those defects and has an excellent agreement with numerical solution. In the present study, the effective thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluid are calculated by Maxwell–Garnetts (MG) and Brinkman models, respectively. The influence of the three dimensionless numbers: the nanofluid volume friction, Hartmann number and Reynolds number on nondimensional velocity profile are considered. The results show that velocity boundary layer thickness decrease with increase of Reynolds number and nanoparticle volume friction and it increases as Hartmann number increases.
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124
137


R.
Nouri
Babol University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol, Iran
Babol University of Technology, Department
Iran


D.D.
Ganji
Babol University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol, Iran
Babol University of Technology, Department
Iran


M.
Hatami
Babol University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol, Iran 
Esfarayen Faculty of Industrial and Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Esfarayen, North Khorasan, Iran
Babol University of Technology, Department
Iran
m.hatami2010@gmail.com
Least Square method (LSM)
Nanofluid
Semiporous channel
Uniform magnetic
[[1] Y. H. Andoh, B. Lips, Prediction of porous wallsthermal protection by effusion or transpirationcooling, An analytical approach, Applied ThermalEngineering 23 (2003) 19471958. ##[2] A. Runstedtler, On the modified StefanMaxwellequation for isothermal multicomponent gaseousdiffusion, Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006)50215029. ##[3] A.S. Berman, Journal of Applied Physics, 24(1953) 1232. ##[4] M. Sheikholeslami, M.Hatami, D. D. Ganji,Analytical investigation of MHD nanofluid flow in aSemiPorous Channel, Powder Technology10 ##[5] S. Soleimani, M. Sheikholeslami, D.D. Ganji andM. GorjiBandpay, Natural convection heat transferin a nanofluid filled semiInternational Communications in HeatTransfer 39 (2012) 565–574. ##[6] D. Domairry, M. Sheikholeslami, H. R.Ashorynejad,Rama S. R. Gorla and M. Khani,Natural convection flow of a nonnanofluid between two vertical flat plates, ProcIMechE Part N:J Nanoengineering andNanosystems.225(3) (2012)115–122 ##[7] M. Sheikholeslami , S. Soleimani, M. GorjiBandpy, D.D. Ganji, S.M. Seyyedi, Naturalconvection of nanofluids in an enclosure between acircular and a sinusoidal cylinder in the presence ofmagnetic field, International CHeat and Mass TransferDoi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer ##[8] R. H. Stern, H. Rasmussen, Left ventricularejection: Model solution by collocation, anapproximate analytical method, Comput. Boil. Med26 (1996) 255261. ##[9] B. Vaferi, V. Salimi, D. Dehghan Baniani, A.Jahanmiri, S. Khedri, Prediction of transient pressureresponse in the petroleum reservoirs using orthogonalcollocation, J. of Petrol. Sci. and Eng 10(2012) 423. ##[10] F.A. Hendi, A.M. Albugami, Numerical solutionfor Fredholm–Volterra integral equation of thesecond kind by using collocation and Galerkinmethods 22 (2010) 37–40. ##[11] M. N. Bouaziz, A. Aziz, Simple and accuratesolution for convectiveradiative fin with temperaturedependent thermal conductivity using double optimallinearization, Energy Convers. Manage. 51 (2010)76–82. ##[12] A. Aziz, M. N. Bouaziz, A least squares methodfor a longitudinal fin with temperature dependentinternal heat generation and thermal conductivity,Energ. Convers. and Manage 52 (2011) 2876–2882. ##[13] G. Shaoqin, D. Huoyuan, negative norm leastsquaresmethods for the incompressible magnetohydrodynamicequations, Act. Math. Sci. 28 B (3)(2008) 675–684. ##[14] J.K. Zhou, Differential Transformation Methodand its Application for Electrical Circuits, HauzhangUniversity press, China, 1986. ##[15] S. Ghafoori, M. Motevalli, M.G. Nejad, F.Shakeri, D.D. Ganji, M. Jalaal, Efficiency ofdifferential transformation method for nonlinearoscillation: Comparison with HPM and VIM, CurrentAppl. Phys 11 (2011) 965971. ##[16] A. Desseaux, Influence of a magnetic field overa laminar viscous flow in a semiporous channel. IntJ Eng Sci 37(1999)1781–94. ##[17] J.C. Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity andMagnetism, second ed. Oxford University Press,Cambridge (1904) 435441.##]
Numerical Study of Natural Convection in a Square Cavity Filled with a Porous Medium Saturated with Nanofluid
2
2
Steady state natural convection of Al2O3water nanofluid inside a square cavity filled with a porous medium is investigated numerically. The temperatures of the two side walls of the cavity are maintained at TH and TC, where TC has been considered as the reference condition. The top and the bottom horizontal walls have been considered to be insulated i.e., nonconducting and impermeable to mass transfer. Darcy–Forchheimer model is used to simulate the momentum transfer in the porous medium. The transport equations are solved numerically with finite volume approach using SIMPLER algorithm. The numerical procedure is adopted in the present study yields consistent performance over a wide range of parameters (Rayleigh number, Ra, 104≤ Ra≤ 106, Darcy number, Da, 105≤ Da ≤ 103, and solid volume fraction, j, 0.0 ≤ j ≤ 0.1). Numerical results are presented in terms of streamlines, isotherms and average Nusselt number. It was found that heat transfer increases with increasing of both Rayleigh number and Darcy number. It is further observed that the heat transfer in the cavity is improved with the increasing of solid volume fraction parameter of nanofluids.
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138
146


G. A.
Sheikhzadeh
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University
Iran
sheikhz@kashanu.ac.ir


S.
Nazari
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University
Iran
Nanofluid
Natural Convection
Numerical study
Porous Medium
Square Cavity
[[1] I.Pop, D. Ingham, Convective Heat Transfer:Mathematical and Computational Modeling of Viscous Fluids and Porous Media, Pergamon 2001. ##[2] A. Bejan, I. Dincer, S. Lorente, A.F. Miguel, A.H.Reis, Porous and Complex Flow Structures in Modern Technologies, Springer, New York 2004. ##[3] K. Vafai, Handbook of Porous Media. Taylor & Francis, New York 2005. ##[4] K. Vafai, Porous Media: Applications in BiologicalSystems and Biotechnology, CRC Press, New York 2010. ##[5] P.Vadasz, Emerging Topics in Heat and MassTransfer in Porous Media, Springer, New York 2008. ##[6] Y. Varol, H.F. Oztop, I. Pop, Natural convection inporous mediafilled triangular enclosure with aconducting thin J. Mech, fin on the hot vertical wall, Eng. Sci, 222, (2008) 17351743. ##[7] Y. Varol, H.F. Oztop, I. Pop, Numerical analysis ofnatural convection for a porous rectangular enclosurewith sinusoidally varying temperature profile on thebottom wall. International Communications in Heatand Mass Transfer, 35(2008) 5664. ##[8] T. Basak, S. Roy, D. Ramakrishna, I. Pop, Visualization of heat transport due to natural convection for hotmaterials confined within two entrapped poroustriangular cavities via heatline concept, Int. J. HeatMass Transf 53 (2010) 21002112. ##[9] T. Basak, S. RoyRamakrishna, I. Pop,Visualization of heat transport during natural convection within poroustriangular cavities via heatline approach, Numerical Heat Transfer 57(2010) 431452. ##[10] T. Basak, S. Roy, T. Paul, I. Pop, Natural convection ina square cavity filled with a porous medium: Effects ofvarious thermal boundary conditions, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf 49(2006) 14301441. ##[11] T. Basak, S. Roy, A.J. Chamkha, A Peclet numberbased analysis of mixed convection for liddrivenporous square cavities with various heating of bottomwall, International Communications in Heat and MassTransfer, 39(2012) 657664. ##[12] S.U.S. Choi, Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluidswith nanoparticles, Int. Mech. Engng. Congress and Exposition San Franciscos, USA, 66(1995) 99105. ##[13] A. Akbarinia, Impacts of nanofluid flow on skinfriction factor and Nusselt number in curved tubes with constant mass flow, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 29( 2008) 229241. ##[14] A. Akbarinia, A. Behzadmehr, Numerical study of laminar mixed convection of a nanofluid in horizontal curved tubes, Applied Thermal Engineering 27(2007)13271337. ##[15] K. Khanafer, K.Vafai, M.Lightstone, BuoyancyDrivenheat transfer enhancement in a two dimensional enclosure utilizing nanofluid, International Journal ofHeat and Mass Transfer 46 (2003) 36393653. ##[16] A. Bejan, Convection heat transfer. John Wiley &Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, USA 2004. ##[17] H.C.Brinkman,The viscosity of concentratedsuspensions and solutions, Journal of Chemical Physics 20 (1952) 571–581. ##[18] H.E. Patel, T. Sundarrajan, T. Pradeep, A. Dasgupta,N.Dasgupta, S.K.Das, A microconvection model forthermal conductivity of nanofluid, Pramana journal ofphysics 65(2005) 863–869. ##[19] Y. Xuan, Q. Li, Heat transfer enhancement ofnanofluids,International Journal of Heat and FluidFlow 21(2000) 58–64. ##[20] S.V. Patankar, Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Taylor and Francis Group, New York 1980.##]