2015
3
2
2
67
Numerical Study on Low Reynolds Mixing ofTShaped MicroMixers with Obstacles
2
2
Micromixers are one of the most crucial components of LabOnaChip devices with the intention of mixing and dispersion of reagents like small molecules and particles. The challenge facing micromixers is typically insufficient mixing efficiency in basic designs, which results in longer microchannels. Therefore, it is desirable to increase mixing efficiency, in order to decrease mixing length, which enables miniaturization of LabOnChip devices. This study investigates two different designs of a passive Tshaped micromixer employing several rectangular obstacles and grooves to monitor mixing efficiency with geometry change, while keeping the Reynolds number under 2. The mixing performance of these geometries is studied by numerical study and it was implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics environment. It was clarified that Tshaped micromixer with obstacles and grooved micromixer improved mixing efficiency of the basic design by 37.2% and 43.8%, respectively. Also, it was shown that this increase in mixing efficiency was due to the development of transversal component of flow caused by the obstacles and grooves.
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68
76


M.R.
Rasouli
Biomedical Engineering Division, Life Science Engineering Department, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. Iran
Biomedical Engineering Division, Life Science
Iran


A.
Abouei Mehrizi
Biomedical Engineering Division, Life Science Engineering Department, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. Iran
Biomedical Engineering Division, Life Science
Iran


A.
Lashkaripour
Biomedical Engineering Division, Life Science Engineering Department, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. Iran
Biomedical Engineering Division, Life Science
Iran
Grooved
Micromixers
Mixing Efficiency
Obstacle
Tshaped
[[1] I. Bernacka  Wojcik et al., Experimental optimization of a passive planar rhombic micromixer with obstacles for effective mixing in a short channel length, RSC Advances 4 (99) (2014) 5601356025. ##[2] M.S. Virk, A.E. Holdø, Numerical analysis of fluid mixing in TType micro mixer, The International Journal of Multiphysics 2 (1) (2008) 107127. ##[3] N.T. Nguyen, Z. Wu, Micromixers—a review, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 15 (2) (2005) R1R16. ##[4] X.B. Wang et al., Cell separation by dielectrophoretic fieldflowfractionation. Analytical Chemistry 72 (4) (2000) 832839. ##[5] Y. Shi et al., Radial capillary array electrophoresis microplate and scanner for highperformance nucleic acid analysis, Analytical Chemistry 71 (23) (1999) 53545361. ##[6] V. Rudyak, A. Minakov, Modeling and Optimization of YType Micromixers, Micromachines 5 (4) (2014) 886912. ##[7] G.S. Jeong et al., Applications of micromixing technology, Analyst 135 (3) (2010) 460473. ##[8] I. Sabotin et al., Optimization of grooved micromixer for microengineering technologies, Informacije MIDEM 43 (2013) 313. ##[9] Y.Z. Liu, , B.J. Kim, H.J. Sung, Twofluid mixing in a microchannel, International journal of heat and fluid flow 25 (6) (2004) 986995. ##[10] A. Kumar et al., Effect of geometry of the grooves on the mixing of Fluids in micro mixer channel, in COMSOL Conference (2012). ##[11] M. Itomlenskis, P.S. Fodor, M. Kaufman, Design of Passive Micromixers using the COMSOL Multiphysics software package, in Proceedings of COMSOL Conference (2008). ##[12] S. Vanka, G. Luo, C. Winkler, Numerical study of scalar mixing in curved channels at low Reynolds numbers, AIChE journal 50 (10) (2004) 23592368. ##[13] 1. BernackaWojcik et al., Experimental optimization of a passive planar rhombic micromixer with obstacles for effective mixing in a short channel length, RSC Advances 4 (99) (2014) 5601356025. ##[14] J. Aubin, D.F. Fletcher, C. Xuereb, Design of micromixers using CFD modelling, Chemical Engineering Science 60 (8) (2005) 25032516. ##[15] YC. Lin,., Y.C. Chung, C.Y. Wu, Mixing enhancement of the passive microfluidic mixer with Jshaped baffles in the tee channel, Biomedical microdevices 9 (2) (2007) 215221. ##[16] D. Gobby, P. Angeli, A. Gavriilidis, Mixing characteristics of Ttype microfluidic mixers, Journal of Micromechanics and microengineering,. 11 (2) (2001) 126. ##[17] M. Engler et al., Numerical and experimental investigations on liquid mixing in static micromixers. Chemical Engineering Journal 101 (1) (2004) 315322. ##[18] J.T. Yang, K.J. Huang, Y.C. Lin, Geometric effects on fluid mixing in passive grooved micromixers, Lab on a Chip 5 (10) (2005) 11401147. ##[19] A. Soleymani, , H. Yousefi, I. Turunen, Dimensionless number for identification of flow patterns inside a Tmicromixer, Chemical Engineering Science 63 (21) (2008) 52915297. ##[20] T. Shih, C.K. Chung, A highefficiency planar micromixer with convection and diffusion mixing over a wide Reynolds number range, Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 5 (2) (2008) 175183. ##[21] S.S. Ghadge, N. Misal, Design and Analysis of MicroMixer for Enhancing Mixing Performance. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Science and Technology 1 (08) (2014) 13421346. ##[22] A.A.S. Bhagat, , E.T. Peterson, I. Papautsky, A passive planar micromixer with obstructions for mixing at low Reynolds numbers, Journal of micromechanics and microengineering 17 (5) (2007) 1017. ##[23] L. Capretto et al, Micromixing within microfluidic devices in Microfluidics, Springer (2011) 2768. ##[24] J.M. Chen, T.L. Horng, W.Y. Tan, Analysis and measurements of mixing in pressuredriven microchannel flow, Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 2 (6) (2006) 455469. ##[25] R.B. Bird, W.E. Stewart, E.N. Lightfoot, Transport phenomena (1960). ##[26] I. Celik, Procedure for estimation and reporting of discretization error in CFD aaplications. ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering 1 (06) (2008). ##[27] M. Jain, A. Rao, K. Nandakumar, Numerical study on shape optimization of groove micromixers, Microfluidics and nanofluidics 15 (5) (2013) 689699.##]
ThermoHydraulic Investigation of Nanofluid as a Coolant in VVER440 Fuel Rod Bundle
2
2
The main purpose of this study is to perform numerical simulation of nanofluids as the coolant in VVER440 fuel rod bundle. The fuel rod bundle contains 60 fuel rods with length of 960 mm and 4 spacer grids. In VVER440 fuel rod bundle the coolant fluid (water) is in high pressure and temperature condition. In the present Thermohydraulic simulation, waterAL2O3 nanofluids containing various volume fractions of AL2O3 nanoparticles are investigated. Calculations performed for Reynolds number of 125000 to 203000, nanoparticles fraction of 0 to 0.05 and nanoparticles diameter of 20 to 100 nm. In this literature, the effects of diameter and volume fraction of nanoparticles on thermohydraulic parameters are studied. To perform correct calculation, different grid qualities of fuel rod bundle are studied and results are compared with reference results. Empirical studies show that as the temperature rises, the effect of nanoparticles on enhancing thermal conductivity intensifies. So it can be said that as the VVER440 fuel rod bundle works in high temperature condition, using the nanofluids in this rod bundle can be effective. Results of our numerical study showed that by using nanofluids as coolant fluid the heat transfer coefficient increases significantly and heat transfer enhancement raises with increase in volume fraction of nanoparticle.
1

77
88


S.
Jalili Palandi
Department of Mathematics, Buinzahra Branch, Islamic Azad University, Buinzahra, I.R. IranSchool of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol, I.R. Iran
Department of Mathematics, Buinzahra Branch,
Iran


A.
RahimiSbo
Department of Mathematics, Buinzahra Branch, Islamic Azad University, Buinzahra, I.R. Iran
Department of Mathematics, Buinzahra Branch,
Iran


M.
RahimiEsbo
Department of Mathematics, Buinzahra Branch, Islamic Azad University, Buinzahra, I.R. IranSchool of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol, I.R. Iran
Department of Mathematics, Buinzahra Branch,
Iran
Heat transfer coefficient
Nanofluid
Particle diameter
Rod bundle
Volume fraction
[[1] M. E. Conner, E. Baglietto, A. M. Elmahdi, CFD methodology and validation for singlephase flow in PWR fuel assemblies, Nuclear Engineering and Design 240 (2010) 2088–2095. ##[2] S. Tóth, A. Aszódi, Calculations of coolant flow in a VVER440 fuel bundle with the code ANSYS CFX 10.0, Proceedings of the Workshop on Modeling and Measurements of TwoPhase Flows and Heat Transfer in Nuclear Fuel Assemblies, Stockholm, Sweden (2006). ##[3] M. R. Abdi, M. Asgari, Kh. Rezaee Ebrahim Saraee, M. Talebi, Numerical Simulation of Split Vane in a 60 Fuel Rod Bundle of VVER440 Reactor and Survey the Effect of Large Length Split Vane (LLSV) and HalfLength Split Vane (HLSV) on Heat Transfer Distribution. World Applied Sciences Journal 18 (7) (2012) 909917. ##[4] B. C. Rahimi, G. Jahanfarnia, Thermalhydraulic core analysis of the VVER1000 reactor using a porous media approach, Journal of Fluids and Structures 51 (2014) 85–96. ##[5] M. Jabbari, k. Hadad, G. R. Ansarifar, Z. Tabadar, Power calculation of VVER1000 reactor using a thermal method, appliedto primary–secondary circuits, Annals of Nuclear Energy 18 (77) (2015) 129132. ##[6] S.U.S. Choi, Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluid with nanoparticles, ASME FED 231/MD. 66 (1995) 99–103. ##[7] P. Keblinski, S. R. Phillpot, S.U.S. Choi, J. A. Eastman, Mechanisms of heat flow in suspensions of nanosized particles(nanofluid), Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer 45 (2002) 855–863. ##[8] J. A. Eastman, S. R. Phillpot, S.U.S. Choi, P. Keblinski, Thermal transport in nanofluids, Annual Review of Materials Research 34 (2004) 219–246. ##[9] O. Ghaﬀari, A. Behzadmehr, H. Ajam, Turbulent mixed convection of a nanofluid in a horizontal curved tube using a twophase approach, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 37 (10) (2010) 1551–1558. ##[10] A. Behzadmehr, M. Saﬀar Avval, N. Galanis, Prediction of turbulent forced convection of a nanofluid in a tube with uniform heat flux using a two phase approach, Int. J. of Heat and Fluid Flow 28 (2) (2007) 211–219. ##[11] C. Abdellahoum, A. Mataoui, H. Oztop, Turbulent forced convection of nanofluid over a heated shallow cavity in a duct, Annals of Nuclear Energy 277 (2015) 126134. ##[12] A. Moghadassi, E. Ghomi, F. Parvizian, A numerical study of water based Al2O3 and Al2O3–Cu hybrid nanofluid effect on forced convective heat transfer, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 92 (2015) 50–57. ##[13] J. Buongiorno, B. Truong, Preliminary study of water based nanofluid coolants for PWRs, Transactions of the American Nuclear Society 92 (2005) 383–384. ##[14] K. Hadad, A. Hajizadeh, K. Jafarpour, B.D. Ganapol, Neutronic study of nanofluids application to VVER1000, Annals of Nuclear Energy 37(11) (2010) 1447–1455. ##[15] E. Zariﬁ, G. Jahanfarnia, F. Veysi, Thermal–hydraulic modeling of nanofluids as the coolant in VVER1000 reactor core by the porous media approach, Annals of Nuclear Energy 51 (2013) 203–212. ##[16] K. Hadad, A. Rahimian, M. R. Nematollahi, Numerical study of single and twophase models of water/Al2O3 nanofluid turbulent forced convection flow in VVER1000 nuclear reactor, Annals of Nuclear Energy 60 (2013) 287294. ##[17] O. Ltd, User guide, http://www.openfoam.com /docts/user/; (2011). ##[18] S. P. Janga, S.U.S. Choi, (Role of Brownian motion in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids, Applied Physics Letters 84 (2004) 43164318. ##[19] C. H. Chon, K. D. Kihm, S. P. Lee, S.U.S. Choi, Empirical correlation finding the role of temperature and particle size for nanofluid (Al2O3) thermal conductivity enhancement, Applied Physics Letters 87 (2005) 153107–153110. ##[20] H. A. Mintsa, G. Roy, C. T. Nguyen, D. Doucet, New Temperature Dependent Thermal Conductivity Data for WaterBased Nanofluids, Int. J. of Therm. Sci 48 (2009) 363–371. ##[21] N. Masoumi, N. Sohrabi, A. A. Behzadmehr, New Model for Calculating the Effective Viscosity of Nanofluids, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 42 (2009) 55501–55506. ##[22] B. C. Pak, Y. I. Cho, Hydrodynamic and HeatTransfer Study of Dispersed Fluids with Submicron Metallic Oxide Particles, Experimental Heat Transfer 11 (1998) 151–170.##]
MultiObjective Optimization of Tio2Water Nanofluid Flow in Tubes Fitted With Multiple Twisted Tape Inserts in Different Arrangement
2
2
In this paper, experimentally derived correlations of heat transfer and pressure drop are used in a Pareto based MultiObjective Optimization (MOO) approach to find the best possible combinations of heat transfer and pressure drop of TiO2water nanofluid flow in tubes fitted with multiple twisted tape inserts in different arrangement. In this study there are four independent design variables: the number and arrangement of twisted tape inserts (N), TiO2 volume fraction (φ), Reynolds number (Re) and Prandtl number (Pr). Seven twisted tape arrangement in three different categories are investigated. The objectives are maximizing the nondimensional heat transfer coefficient (Nu) and minimizing the nondimensional pressure drop (f Re). It is shown that some interesting and important relationships as useful optimal design principles involved in the thermal performance of nanofluid flow in tubes fitted with multiple twisted tape inserts in different arrangement can be discovered by Pareto based multiobjective optimization approach.
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89
99


H.
Safikhani
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak University, Arak 3815688349,Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty
Iran


S.
Eiamsaard
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530, Thailand
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty
Iran
Dual/triple/quadruple twisted tapes
Heat transfer enhancement
Multiobjective optimization
NSGA II
TiO2/water nanofluid
[[1] S. Eiamsaard, K. Wongcharee, S. Sripattanapipat, 3D Numerical simulation of swirling flow and convective heat transfer in a circular tube induced by means of loosefit twisted tapes, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf 36 (2009) 947–955. ##[2] R. L. Webb, Performance evaluation criteria for use of enhanced heat transfer surfaces in heat exchanger design, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf 24 (1981) 715726. ##[3] K. Wongcharee, S. Eiamsaard, Friction and heat transfer characteristics of laminar swirl flow through the round tubes inserted with alternate clockwise and counterclockwise twistedtapes, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf 38 (2011) 348–352. ##[4] L. Wang, B. Sunden, Performance comparison of some tube inserts, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf 29 (2002) 4556. ##[5] M. M. K. Bhuiya, M. S. U. Chowdhury, M. Saha, M. T. Islam, Heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in turbulent flow through a tube fitted with perforated twisted tape inserts, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 46 (2013) 4957. ##[6] R. M. Manglik, A. E. Bergles, Heat transfer and pressure drop correlations for twistedtape inserts in isothermal tubes. Part II: Transition and turbulent flows, Trans. ASME J. Heat Transf 115 (1993) 890896. ##[7] S. K. Saha, A. Dutta, S. K. Dhal, Friction and heat transfer characteristics of laminar swirl flow through a circular tube fitted with regularly spaced twistedtape elements. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 44 (22) (2001) 42114223. ##[8] S. Ray, A. W. Date, Friction and heat transfer characteristics of flow through square duct with twisted tape insert. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 46 (5) (2003) 889902. ##[9] M. A. AkhavanBehabadi, Ravi Kumar, A. Mohammadpour, M. JamaliAsthiani, Effect of twisted tape insert on heat transfer and pressure drop in horizontal evaporators for the flow of R134a. Int. J. Refrig 32 (5) (2009) 922930. ##[10] S. Eiamsaard, C. Thianpong, P. Promvonge, Experimental investigation of heat transfer and flow friction in a circular tube fitted with regularly spaced twisted tape elements. Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 33 (10) (2006) 12251233. ##[11] P. Promvonge, S.Eiamsaard, Heat transfer behaviors in a tube with combined conicalring and twistedtape insert. Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 34 (7) (2007) 849859. ##[12] S. Eiamsaard, C. Thianpong, P. Eiamsaard, P. Promvonge, Convective heat transfer in a circular tube with shortlength twisted tape insert. Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 36 (3) (2009) 365371. ##[13] S. Eiamsaard, C. Thianpong, P. Eiamsaard, P. Promvonge, Thermal characteristics in a heat exchanger tube fitted with dual twisted tape elements in tandem. Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 37 (1) (2010) 3946. ##[14] S. Eiamsaard, C. Thianpong, P. Eiamsaard, Turbulent heat transfer enhancement by counter/coswirling flow in a tube fitted with twin twisted tapes. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci 34 (1) (2010) 5362. ##[15] S. Eiamsaard, K. Wongcharee, P. Eiamsaard, C. Thianpong, Heat transfer enhancement in a tube using deltawinglet twisted tape inserts. Appl. Therm. Eng 30 (4) (2010) 310318. ##[16] S. Eiamsaard, P. Promvonge, Heat transfer characteristics in a tube fitted with helical screwtape with/without corerod inserts. Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 34 (2) (2007) 176185. ##[17] S.W. Chang, K.W. Yu, M.H. Lu, Heat transfer in tubes fitted with single, twin and triple twisted tapes, Exp. Heat Transf 18 (2005) 279294. ##[18] S. Eiamsaard, K. Kiatkittipong, Heat transfer enhancement by multiple twisted tape inserts and TiO2/water nanofluid, Appl. Therm. Eng 70 (2014) 896924. ##[19] P. Rathnakumar, K. Mayilsamy, S. Suresh, P. Murugesan, Laminar heat transfer and pressure drop in tube fitted with helical louvered rod inserts using CNT/water nanofluids, J. Bionanoscience 8 (3) (2014) 160170. ##[20] P. Rathnakumar, K. Mayilsamy, S. Suresh, P. Murugesan, Laminar heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of carbon nano tube/water nanofluids, J. Nanoscience Nanotechnology 14 (3) (2014) 24002407. ##[21] Zamzamian, S.N. Oskouie, A. Doosthoseini, A. Joneidi, M. Pazouki, Experimental investigation of forced convective heat transfer coefficient in nanofluids of Al2O3/EG and CuO/EG in a double pipe and plate heat exchangers under turbulent flow, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci 35 (2011) 495502. ##[22] P. Razi, M.A. AkhavanBehabadi, M. Saeedinia, Pressure drop and thermal characteristics of CuObase oil nanofluid laminar flow in flattened tubes under constant heat flux, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf 38 (2011) 964971. ##[23] H. Safikhani, A. Abbassi, Effects of tube flattening on the fluid dynamic and heat transfer performance of nanofluid flow, Adv. Powder Technolog 25 (3) (2014) 11321141. ##[24] K.V. Sharma, L. Syam Sundar, P.K. Sarma, Estimation of heat transfer coefficient and friction factor in the transition flow with low volume concentration of Al2O3 nanofluid flowing in a circular tube and with twisted tape insert, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf 36 (2009) 503507. ##[25] L. Syam Sundar, K.V. Sharma, Turbulent heat transfer and friction factor of Al2O3 nanofluid in circular tube with twisted tape inserts, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf 53 (2010) 14091416. ##[26] L. Syam Sundar, N.T. Ravi Kumar, M.T. Naik, K.V. Sharma, Effect of full length twisted tape inserts on heat transfer and friction factor enhancement with Fe3O4 magnetic nanofluid inside a plain tube: an experimental study, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf 55 (2012) 27612768. ##[27] A.A. Abbasian Arani, J. Amani, Experimental study on the effect of TiO2water nanofluid on heat transfer and pressure drop, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci 42 (2012) 107115. ##[28] K. Wongcharee, S. Eiamsaard, Enhancement of heat transfer using CuO/water nanofluid and twisted tape with alternate axis, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf 38 (2011) 742748. ##[29] M.T. Naik, G. Ranga Janardana, L. Syam Sundar, Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor with waterpropylene glycol based CuO nanofluid in a tube with twisted tape inserts, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf 46 (2013) 1321. ##[30] K. Deb, S. Agrawal, A. Pratap and T. Meyarivan, T., A fast and elitist multiobjective genetic algorithm: NSGAII. IEEE Trans Evolutionary Computation 6 (2002) 18297. ##[31] H. Safikhani, M. A. AkhavanBehabadi, N. NarimanZadeh and M. J. Mahmoodabadi, Modeling and multiobjective optimization of square cyclones using CFD and neural networks, Chem. Eng. Res. Des 89 (2011) 301–309. ##[32] H. Safikhani, A. Hajiloo, M. A. Ranjbar, Modeling and multiobjective optimization of cyclone separators using CFD and genetic algorithms, Comput. Chem. Eng 35 (6) (2011) 1064–1071. ##[33] H. Safikhani, A. Abbassi, A. Khalkhali, M. Kalteh, Multiobjective optimization of nanofluid flow in flat tubes using CFD, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms, Adv. Powder Technol 25 (5) (2014) 1608–1617. ##[34] N. Amanifard, N. NarimanZadeh, M. Borji, A. Khalkhali and A. Habibdoust, Modeling and Pareto optimization of heat transfer and flow coefficients in micro channels using GMDH type neural networks and genetic algorithms, Energy Convers. Manage 49 (2008) 311325. ##[35] S. W. Churchil, Viscous Flows: The Practical Uses of Theory, Butterworth, Boston (1988) 9 40. ##[36] Bejan, Convection heat transfer, Wiley (2004) 107.##]
Solution Combustion Preparation Of NanoAl2O3: Synthesis and Characterization
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2
The aluminum oxide materials are widely used in ceramics, refractories and abrasives due to their hardness, chemical inertness, high melting point, nonvolatility and resistance to oxidation and corrosion. The paper describes work done on synthesis of αalumina by using the simple, nonexpensive solution combustion method using glycine as fuel.Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles were synthesized by aluminum nitrate 9hydrate as precursor and glycine as fuel. The samples were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field effect scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Xray diffraction (XRD) and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). As there are many forms of transition aluminas produced during this process, xray diffraction (XRD) technique was used to identify αalumina. The diameter of spherelike asprepared nanoparticles was about 10 nm as estimated by XRD technique and direct HRTEM observation. The surface morphological studies from SEM depicted the size of alumina decreases with increasing annealing temperature. Absorbance peak of UVVis spectrum showed the small bandgap energy of 2.65 ev and the bandgap energy increased with increasing annealing temperature because of reducing the size.
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100
105


M.
Farahmandjou
Department of Physics, Varamin Pishva Branch, Islamis Azad University, Varamin, I.R. Iran
Department of Physics, Varamin Pishva Branch,
Iran


N.
Golabiyan
Department of Physics, Varamin Pishva Branch, Islamis Azad University, Varamin, I.R. Iran
Department of Physics, Varamin Pishva Branch,
Iran
Aluminum oxide nanoparticles
Combustion
Glycine
Synthesis
[[1] X. Shen, X. Nie, H. Hu, J. Tjong, Effects of coating thickness on thermal conductivities of alumina coatings and alumina/aluminum hybrid materials prepared using plasma electrolytic oxidation, Surface and Coatings Technology 207 (2012) 96–101. ##[2] J. Musil, J. Blaˇzek, P. Zeman, ˇS. Prokˇsov´a, M. ˇSaˇsek, R. Cerstv´y, Thermal stability of alumina thin films containing 𝛾Al2O3 phase prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering, Applied Surface Science 257 (2010) 1058–1062. ##[3] K. Vanbesien, P. De Visschere, P. F. Smet, D. Poelman, Electrical properties of Al2O3 films for TFELdevices made with solgel technology, Thin Solid Films 514 (12) (2006) 323–328. ##[4] J.W. Lee, H.S. Yoon, U.S. Chae, H.J. Park, U.Y. Hwang, H.S. Park, D.R. Park, S.J. Yoo, A comparison of structural characterization of composite alumina powder prepared by solgel method according to the promoters, Korean Chem. Eng. Res 43 (4) (2005) 503–510,. ##[5] H.J. Youn, J. W. Jang, I.T. Kim, K. S. Hong, Lowtemperature formation of αalumina by doping of an aluminasol, J. of Colloid and Interface Sci 211 (1999) 110–113,. ##[6] Y. K. Park, E. H. Tadd, M. Zubris, R. Tannenbaum, Sizecontrolled synthesis of alumina nanoparticles from aluminum alkoxides, Materials Res. Bulletin 40 (2005) 1506–1512,. ##[7] Y. Rozita, R. Brydson, A. J. Scott, An investigation of commercial gammaAl2O3 nanoparticles, J. of Physics: Conf. Series 241(2009). ##[8] V. Isupov, L. Chupakhina, G. Kryukova, S. Tsybulya, Fine 𝛼alumina with low alkali, new approach for preparation, Solid State Ionics 141142 (2001) 471–478. ##[9] I. N. Bhattacharya, P. K. Gochhayat, P. S. Mukherjee, S. Paul, P. K. Mitra, Thermal decomposition of precipitated low bulk density basic aluminum sulfate, Materials Chemistry and Physics 8(1) (2004) 32–40. ##[10] E. Ryshkewitch, Oxide Ceramics, Academic Press 1960. ##[11] J. S. Reed, Principles of Ceramics Processing, WileyInterscience, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1995. ##[12] W.L. Suchanek, Hydrothermal synthesis of alpha alumina (αAl2O3) powders: Study of the processing variables and growth mechanisms, J. Am. Ceram. Soc 93 (2010) 399–412. ##[13] P.V. Ananthapadmanabhan, K.P. Sreekumar, N. Venkatramani, P.K. Sinha, P.R. Taylor, Characterization of plasmasynthesized alumina, J. Alloy. Compd 244 (1996) 70–74. ##[14] M. Nguefack, A.F. Popa, S. Rossignol, C. Kappenstein, Preparation of alumina through a solgel process, synthesis characterization, thermal evolution and model of intermediate Boehmite, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys 5 (2003) 4279–4289. ##[15] M. R. Karim, M. A. Rahman, M. A. J. Miah, H. Ahmad1, M. Yanagisawa, M. Ito, Synthesis of γAlumina Particles and Surface Characterization, The Open Colloid Science Journal 4 (2011) 3236 ##[16] R. Rogojan, E. Andronescu, C. Ghitulica, B.Ş. Vasile, synthesis and characterization of alumina nanopowder obtained by solgel method, U.P.B. Sci. Bull 73 (2011) 6776. ##[17] F. Mirjalilia, L. Chuahb, M.Hasmaliza, Effect of stirring time on synthesis of ultra fine αAl2O3 powder by a simple solgel Method, Journal of Ceramic Processing Research 12 (2011) 738741. ##[18] M.I. Nieto, C. Tallon, R. Moreno, Synthesis of gammaalumina nanoparticles by freeze drying. Adv. Sci. Technol 45 (2006) 223–230. ##[19] T. Ogihara, H. Nakajima, T. Yanagawa, N. Ogata, K. Yoshida, Preparation of monodisperse, spherical alumina powders from alkoxides, J. Am. Ceram. Soc 74 (1991) 2263–2269. ##[20] A. Janbey, R.K. Pati, S. Tahir, P. Pramanik, A new chemical route for the synthesis of nanocrystalline αAl2O3 powder, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc 21 (2001) 2285–2289. ##[21] K. Inoue, M. Hama, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Yasuda ,T. Morita, Low Temperature Synthesis of αAlumina with a Seeding Technique, ISRN Ceramics (2013) 317830317835. ##[22] M. ShojaieBahaabad, E. TaheriNassaj, Economical synthesis of nano alumina powder using an aqueous solgel method, Materials Letters 62 (19) (2008) 3364–3366. ##[23] F. Mirjalili, M. Hasmaliza, L. C. Abdullah, Sizecontrolled synthesis of nano 𝛼alumina particles through the solgel method, Ceramics International 36 (4) (2010) 1253–1257. ##[24] Q. Fu, C.B. Cao, H.S. Zhu, Preparation of alumina films from a new solgel route, Thin Solid Films 348 (1) (1999) 99–102. ##]
Turbulent Mixed Convection of a Nanofluid in a Horizontal Circular Tube with NonUniform Wall Heat Flux Using a TwoPhase Approach
2
2
In this paper, Turbulent mixed convective heat transfer of water and Al2O3 nanofluid has been numerically studied in a horizontal tube under nonuniform heat flux on the upper wall and insulation in the lower wall using mixture model. For the discretization of governing equations, the secondorder upstream difference scheme and finite volume method were used. The coupling of pressure and velocity was established by using SIMPLEC algorithm. The calculated results demonstrated that the convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid is higher than of the base fluid and by increasing the nanoparticles volume fraction, the convective heat transfer coefficient and shear stress on the wall increase. On the other hand, with increasing the Grashof number, the shear stress and convective heat transfer coefficient decrease.
1

106
117


F.
Vahidinia
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Zabol, Zabol, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, University
Iran


M.
Rahmdel
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, I.R.Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, University
Iran
Grashof number
Horizontal tube
Mixed convection
Nanoparticles volume fraction
Turbulent flow
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Zhang, An experimental study on fluid flow and heat transfer in a multiport minichannel flat tube with microfin structures, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 84 (2015) 511–520. ##[6] S.P. Guo, Z. Wu, W. Li, D. Kukulka, B. Sunden, X.P. Zhou, J.J. Wei, T. Simon, Condensation and evaporation heat transfer characteristics in horizontal smooth, herringbone and enhanced surface EHT tubes, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 85 (2015) 281–291. ##[7] D.J. Kukulka, R. Smith, K.G. Fuller, Development and evaluation of enhanced heat transfer tubes, Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 2141–2145. ##[8] C. Muthusamy, M. Vivar, I. Skryabin, K. Srithar, Effect of conical cutout turbulators with internal fins in a circular tube on heat transfer and friction factor, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2013) 64–68. ##[9] R. Raj, N.S. Lakshman, Y. Mukkamala, Single phase flow heat transfer and pressure drop measurements in doubly enhanced tubes, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 88 (2015) 215227. ##[10] W.H. Azmi, K.V. Sharma, P.K. Sarma, R. Mamat, S. Anuar, L.S. Sundar, Numerical validation of experimental heat transfer coefficient with SiO2 nanofluid flowing in a tube with twisted tape inserts, Applied Thermal Engineering 73 (2014) 296306. ##[11] T. Sokhansefat, A.B. Kasaeian, F. Kowsary, Heat transfer enhancement in parabolic trough collector tube using Al2O3/synthetic oil nanofluid, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 33 (2014) 636–644. ##[12] K. Hadad, A. Rahimian, M.R. Nematollahi, Numerical study of single and twophase models of water/Al2O3 nanofluid turbulent forced convection flow in VVER1000 nuclear reactor, Annals of Nuclear Energy 60 (2013) 287–294. ##[13] M. Shariat, R. Mokhtari Moghari, A. Akbarinia, R. Rafee, S.M. Sajjadi, Impact of nanoparticle mean diameter and the buoyancy force on laminar mixed convection nanofluid flow in an elliptic duct employing two phase mixture model, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 50 (2014) 15–24. ##[14] A.A. Rabienataj Darzi, M. Farhadi, K. Sedighi, Heat transfer and flow characteristics of Al2O3–water nanofluid in a double tube heat exchanger, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 47 (2013) 105–112. ##[15] R.S. Vajjha, D.K. Das, D.R. Ray, Development of new correlations for the Nusselt number and the friction factor under turbulent flow of nanofluids in flat tubes, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 80 (2015) 353–367. ##[16] A. Malvandi, M.R. Safaei, M.H. Kaffash, D.D. Ganji, MHD mixed convection in a vertical annulus filled with Al2O3–water nanofluid considering nanoparticle migration, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 382 (2015) 296–306. ##[17] B.H. Salman, H.A. Mohammed, A.S. Kherbeet, Numerical and experimental investigation of heat transfer enhancement in a microtube using nanofluids, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 59 (2014) 88–100. ##[18] W.I.A. Aly, Numerical study on turbulent heat transfer and pressure drop of nanofluid in coiled tubeintube heat exchangers, Energy Conversion and Management 79 (2014) 304–316. ##[19] S. Parvin, R. Nasrin, M.A. Alim, N.F. Hossain, A.J. Chamkha, Thermal conductivity variation on natural convection flow of water–alumina nanofluid in an annulus, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 5268–5274. ##[20] Y. Abbassi, M. Talebi, A.S. Shirani, J. Khorsandi, Experimental investigation of TiO2/Water nanofluid effects on heat transfer characteristics of a vertical annulus with nonuniform heat flux in nonradiation environment, Annals of Nuclear Energy 69 (2014) 7–13. ##[21] G. Dang, F. Zhong, Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, Numerical study of heat transfer deterioration of turbulent supercritical kerosene flow in heated circular tube, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 85 (2015) 1003–1011. ##[22] A. Moghadassi, E. Ghomi, F. Parvizian, A numerical study of water based Al2O3 and Al2O3−Cu hybrid nanofluid effect on forced convective heat transfer, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 92 (2015) 5057. ##[23] K. Wusiman, H. Chung, M.J. Nine, H. Afrianto, Heat transfer characteristics of nanofluid through circular tube, J. Cent. South Univ 20 (2013) 142−148. ##[24] V. Bianco, O. Manca, S. Nardini, Performance analysis of turbulent convection heat transfer of Al2O3 waternanofluid in circular tubes at constant wall temperature, Energy 77 (2014) 403413. ##[25] G. Saha, M.C. Paul, Heat transfer and entropy generation of turbulent forced convection flow of nanofluids in a heated pipe, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 61 (2015) 26–36. ##[26] A. Aghaei, G A. Sheikhzadeh, M. Dastmalchi, H. Forozande, Numerical investigation of turbulent forcedconvective heat transfer of Al2O3–water nanofluid with variable properties in tube, Ain Shams Engineering Journal 6 (2015) 577585. ##[27] A. Behzadmehr, M. SaffarAvval, N. Galanis, Prediction of Turbulent Forced Convection of a Nanofluid in a Tube with Uniform Heat Flux Using a Two Phase Approach, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 28 (2007) 211–219. ##[28] M. Hejazian, M. Keshavarz Moraveji , A. Beheshti, Comparative study of Euler and mixture models for turbulent flow of Al2O3 nanofluid inside a horizontal tube, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 52 (2014) 152–158. ##[29] V. Bianco, O. Manca, S. Nardini, Numerical investigation on nanofluids turbulent convection heat transfer inside a circular tube, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 50 (2011) 341–349. ##[30] M. Akbari, A. Behzadmehr, F. Shahraki, Fully developed mixed convection in horizontal and inclined tubes with uniform heat flux using nanofluid, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 29 (2008) 545–556. ##[31] S. Mirmasoumi, A. Behzadmehr, Effect of nanoparticles mean diameter on mixed convection heat transfer of a nanofluid in a horizontal tube, International Journal of Heat ##and Fluid Flow 29 (2008) 557–566. ##[32] A. Akbarinia, A. Behzadmehr, Numerical study of laminar mixed convection of a nanofluidin horizontal curved tubes, Applied Thermal Engineering 27 (2007) 1327–1337. ##[33] O. Ghaffari, A. Behzadmehr, H. Ajam, Turbulent mixed convection of a nanofluid in a horizontal curved tube using a twophase approach, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 37 (2010) 1551–1558. ##[34] R. Mokhtari Moghari, A.S. Mujumdar, M. Shariat, F. Talebi, S.M. Sajjadi, A. Akbarinia, Investigation effect of nanoparticle mean diameter on mixed convection Al2O3water nanofluid flow in an annulus by two phase mixture model, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 49 (2013) 25–35. ##[35] H. Aminfar, M. Mohammadpourfard, Y. NarmaniKahnamouei, A 3D numerical simulation of mixed convection of a magnetic nanofluid in the presence of nonuniform magnetic field in a vertical tube using two phase mixture model, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 323 (2011) 1963–1972. ##[36] S. Mirmasoumi, A. Behzadmehr, Numerical study of laminar mixed convection of a nanofluid in a horizontal tube using twophase mixture model, Applied Thermal Engineering 28 (2008) 717–727 ##[37] Sh. Allahyari, A. Behzadmehr, S.M. Hosseini Sarvari, Conjugate heat transfer of laminar mixed convection of a nanofluid through a horizontal tube with circumferentially nonuniform heating, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 50 (2011) 19631972. ##[38] M. Manninen, V. Taivassalo, S. Kallio, On the Mixture Model for Multiphase Flow, Technical Research Center of Finland, VTT Publications 288 (1996). 9–18. ##[39] L. Schiller, A. Naumann, A drag coefficient correlation, Z. Ver. Deutsch. Ing. 77 (1935). 318–320. ##[40] B.E. Launder, D.B. Spalding, Lectures in Mathematical Models of Turbulence, Academic Press, London, England, 1972. ##[41] A.M. Hussein, K.V. Sharma, R.A. Bakar, K. Kadirgama, The Effect of Nanofluid Volume Concentration on Heat Transfer and Friction Factor inside a Horizontal Tube, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Journal of Nanomaterials (2013) 859563. ##[42] B.C. Pak, Y.I. Cho, Hydrodynamic and heat transfer study of dispersed fluids with submicron metallic oxide particles. Exp Heat Transfer 11(1998) 151–70. ##[43] S.U.S. Choi, Z.G. Zhang, P. Keblinski, Nanofluids. Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 6 (2004) 757–773 ##[44] J. Buongiorno, Convective transport in nanofluids, ASME J of Heat Transfer 128 (2006) 240–250. ##[45] C.H. Chon, K.D. Kihm, S.P. Lee, S.U.S. Choi, Empirical correlation finding the role of temperature and particle size for nanofluid (Al2O3) thermal conductivity enhancement, J. Phys. 82 (2005) 1–3. ##[46] N. Masoumi, N. Sohrabi, A. Behzadmehr, A new model for calculating the effective viscosity of nanofluids, J. Phys. 42 (2009) 055501. ##[47] K. Khanafer, K. Vafai, M. Lightstone, Buoyancydriven heat transfer enhancement in a twodimensional enclosure utilizing nanofluids, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 46 (2003) 3639–3653. ##[48] V. Gnielinski, New equations for heat and mass transfer in turbulent pipe and channel flow. International Chemical Engineering 16 (1976) 359368. ##[49] E.B. Haghighi, A.T. Utomo, M. Ghanbarpour, A.I.T. Zavareh, H. Poth, R. Khodabandeh, A. Pacek, B.E. Palm, Experimental study on convective heat transfer of nanofluids in turbulent flow: Methods of comparison of their performance, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 57 (2014) 378–387. ##[50] S. Torii, Turbulent Heat Transfer Behavior of Nanofluid in a Circular Tube Heated under Constant Heat Flux, Hindawi Publishing Corporation Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 2 (2010) 917612.##]
Experimental Investigation on Heat Transfer of SilverOil Nanofluid in Concentric Annular Tube
2
2
In order to examine the laminar convective heat transfer of nanofluid, experiments carried out using silveroil nanofluid in a concentric annulus with outer constant heat flux as boundary condition. Silveroil nanofluid prepared by Electrical Explosion of Wire technique and observed no nanoparticles agglomeration during nanofluid preparation process and carried out experiments. The average size of particles established to 20 nm. Nanofluids with various particle weight fractions of 0.12%wt., 0.36%wt. and 0.72%wt. were employed. The nanofluid flowing between the tubes is heated by an electrical heating coil wrapped around it. The effects of different parameters such as flow Reynolds number, diameter ratio and nanofluid particle concentration on heat transfer coefficient are studied. Results show that, heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number increased by using naanofluid instead of pure oil. Maximum enhancement of heat transfer coefficient occurs in 0.72% wt. also results indicate that heat transfer coefficient increase slightly by using low wt. concentration of nanofluids.
1

118
128


H.
Aberoumand
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Takestan branch, Islamic Azad University, Talestan, I.R. Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College
Iran


A.
Jahani
Mechanical Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University of Behbahan, Behbahan, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, Islamic
Iran


S.
Aberoumand
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Takestan branch, Islamic Azad University, Talestan, I.R. Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College
Iran


A.
Jafarimoghaddam
Aerospace Engineering Department, University of K. N. Toosi Technology, Tehran I.R. Iran
Aerospace Engineering Department, University
Iran
Convective Heat Transfer
Laminar Flow
Nanofluid
Nanoparticles
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Synthesis and Characterization of a New Halomercurate Nanoparticles: Triphenylphosphonium Trichloromercurate (II) [P (C6H5)3H]+[Hgcl3]
2
2
That particles are of less than 100nm in diameter called nano particles (NPS) and there are in the world naturally like volcanic activity. In the present investigation a new mixed halomercurate nano particle compound was synthesised and characterized. Triphenylphosphonium trichloromercorate (II) [P(C6H5)3H]+[HgCl3] nanoparticle was synthesi zed by using triphenylphosphonium chloride reaction with HgCl2,in the presence of trimercaptopropionic acid. This method is a simple and direct method. The product was characterized by spectroscopic and analytical methods such as 31PNMR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and also size of nanoparticles were calculated by Xray diffraction (XRD). Average particles size of nano is showed about 89.83 nm Theoretical calculations were applied for the structural optimization of this compound. The structure of compound has been calculated and optimized by the density functional theory (DFT) based method at B3LYP/6311G levels of theory, using the Gaussian 09 package of programs. Finally, the comparison between theory and experiments are done.
1

129
134


Sh.
Ghamami
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, I.R. Iran
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science,
Iran


R.
Ghahremani Gavineh Roudi
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, I.R. Iran
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science,
Iran


S.
Kazem Zadeh Anari
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, I.R. Iran
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science,
Iran
[P(C6H5)3H]+[HgCl3]
Halomercurate
Nanoparticles
SEM
Synthesis
Xray diffraction
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