2014
2
2
2
75
The Impact of Nanoparticles on Forced Convection in a Serpentine Microchannel
2
2
In this study heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of Al2O3/water nanofluid in a serpentine microchannel is numerically investigated. A constant heat flux is applied on microchannel wall and a singlephase model has been adopted using temperaturedependent properties. The effects of pertinent factors such as Reynolds number (Re=10, 20, 50 and 100), particle volume fraction (𝛷=0(distilled water), 2, 4 and 8%) and heat flux (q=5, 10 and 15 W/cm2), on the velocity and temperature field, average heat transfer coefficient (havg), pressure drop (Δp), and thermalhydraulic performance (η) are evaluated. The results show that the use of nanofluid causes increased velocity gradient near the wall which is more remarkable for φ = 8%. The results also reveal that the heat transfer rate increases as nanoparticle volume fraction and Reynold number increase and a maximum value 51% in the average heat transfer coefficient is detected among all the considered cases when compared to basefluid (i.e., water). It is found that a higher heat flux leads to heat transfer enhancement and reduction in pressure drop. Finally, thermalhydraulic performance is calculated and it is seen that the best performance occurs for Re =10 and φ = 4%.
1

86
99


P.
Rahim Mashaei
Mechanical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, Iran University
Iran
payam.mashaei@gmail.com


S.M.
Hosseinalipour
Mechanical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, Iran University
Iran


M.
El Jawad Muslmani
Mechanical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, Iran University
Iran
Al2O3/water
Viscosity
thermal conductivity
nanofluid
[[1] C. Yang, J. Wu, H. Chein , S. Lu, Friction characteristics of water, R134a, and air in small tubes, Microscale Thermophysical Engineering 7(2003) 335348. ##[2] S. U. S. Choi, Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles, American Society of Mechanical Engineers 66 (1995) 99–105. ##[3] X. Wang, X. Xu, S.U.S. Choi, Thermal conductivity of nanoparticlefluid mixture, Journal of Thermo physics and Heat Transfer 13(1999) 474480. ##[4] Y. Xuan, Q. Li, Heat transfer enhancement of nano fluids, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 21 (2000) 586421 (2000) 5864. ##[5] S. Lee, S.U.S. Choi, Measuring thermal conductivity of fluids containing oxide nanoparticles, Journal of Heat Transfer 121 (1999) 280289. ##[6] I. Chopkar, S. Sudarshan, P. K. Das, I. Manna, Effect of particle size on thermal conductivity of nanofluid, Metallurgical and Material Transaction 39 (2008) 15351542. ##[7] C. H. Li, G. P. Peterson, Experimental investigation of temperature and volume fraction variations on the effective thermal conductivity of nanoparticle suspensions (nanofluids), Journal of Applied Physics 99 (2006) 084314. ##[8] S. K. Das, N. Putra, P. Thiesen, W. Roetzel, Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity enhancement for nanofluids, Journal of Heat Transfer 125 (2003) 567574. ##[9] T. P. Teng, Y. H. Hung, T. C. Teng, J. H. Chen, Performance evaluation on an aircooled heat exchanger for alumina nanofluid under laminar flow, Nanoscale Research. Letter 6 (2011) 408. ##[10] P. R. Mashaei, S. M. Hosseinalipour, M.Bah iraei, Numerical investigation of nanofluid forced convection in channels with discrete heat sources, Journal of Applied Mathematics(2012) 259284. ##[11] P. R. Mashaei, S. M. Hosseinalipour, M.Bah iraei, M.Dirani, 3D numerical simulation of nanofluid laminar forced convection in a channel with localized heating, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Science 6 (2012) 479489. ##[12] Y.T, Yang, F.H. Lai, Numerical study of flow and heat transfer characteristics of aluminawater nanofluids in a microchannel using the lattice Boltzmann method, International Communication of Heat and Mass Transfer 38 (2011) 607614. ##[13] H.A. Mohammed, G. Bhaskaran , N.H. Shuaib , R. Saidur, Numerical study of heat transfer enhancement of counter nanofluids flow in rectangular microchannel heat exchanger, Superlattices Microstructure 50 (2011) 215233. ##[14] C.H. Chen, C.Y. Ding, Study on the thermal behavior and cooling performance of a nanofluidcooled microchannel heat sink, International Journal of Thermal Science 50 (2011) 378384. ##[15] E.M. Tokit, H.A. Mohammed, M.Z. Yusoff, Thermal performance of optimized interrupted microchannel heat sink (IMCHS) using nanofluids, International Communication of Heat and Mass Transfer 39 (2012) 15951604. ##[16] J. Koo, C. Kleinstreuer, Laminar nanofluid flow in microheatsinks, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 48 (2005) 26522661. ##[17] A. Raisi, and B.Ghasemi, M. Aminossadati, A numerical study on the forced convection of laminar nanofluid in a microchannel with both slip and noslip conditions, Numerical Heat TransferPart A 59 (2011) 114129. ##[18] M. Kalteh, A. Abbassi , M. SaffarAvval , J. Harting, Eulerian–Eulerian twophase numerical simulation of nanofluid laminar forced convection in a microchannel, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 32 (2011) 107116. ##[19] R. Chein, J.Chuang, Experimental microchannel heat sink performance studies using nanofluids, International. Journal of Thermal Science 46 (2007) 576646 (2007) 5766. ##[20] B. Fani, A. Abbassi, M. Kalteh, Effect of nano particles size on thermal performance of nanofluid in a trapezoidal microchannelheatsink, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 45 (2013) 155–161. ##[21] M.I. Hassan, Investigation of flow and heat transfer characteristics in micro pin fin heat sink with nanofluid, Applied Thermal Engineering 63 (2014) 598–607. ##[22] S. Halelfadl, A. M. Adhame, N. MohdGhazalib, T. Maréa, P. Estelléc, R. Ahmad, Optimization of thermal performances and pressure drop of rectangular microchannel heat sink using aqueous carbon nanotubes based nanofluid, Applied Thermal Engineering 62 (2014) 492–499. ##[23] P. K. Singh, P. V. Harikrishna, T. Sundararajan ,S. K. Das, Experimental and Numerical Investigation into the Heat Transfer Study of Nanofluids in Microchannel, Journal of Heat Transfer 133(2011) 701709. ##[24] J.Y Jung, H. S. Oh, H.Y. Kwak, Forced conv ective heat transfer of nanofluids in microchannels, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 52 (2009) 466472. ##[25] C.J. Ho, L.C. Wei, Z.W. Li, An experimental Investigation of forced convective cooling performance of a microchannel heat sink with Al2O3Water nanofluid, Applied Thermal Engineering 30 (2010) 96103. ##[26] Y. Lasbet, B. Auvity, C. Castelain, H. Peerhossaini, Thermal and hydraulic performance of chaotic microchannel: application to fuel cell cooling, Heat Transfer Engineering 28 (2007) 795803. ##[27] G.L. Morini, Viscous heating in liquid flows in micro channel, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 48 (2005) 36373647. ##[28] A. P. Saamito, J. C. Kurnia, A. S. Mujumdar, Numerical evaluation of laminar heat transfer enhancement in nanofluid flow in coiled square tube, Nanoscale Research Letter 6 (2011) 376. ##[29] E.AbuNada, Effect of variable and thermal conductivity of Al2O3water nanofluid on heat transfer enhancement in natural convection, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 30 (2009) 679690. ##[30] C.T. Nguyen, F. Desgranges, G.Roy, N. Glanis, T. Mare, S. Boucher, H. Angue Minsta, Temperature and particle size dependent viscosity data for waterbased nanofluidshystresis phenomenon, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 28 (2007) 14921506. ##[31] C.H. Chon, K.D. Kihm, Empirical correlation finding the role of temperature and particle size for nanofluid (Al2O3) thermal conductivity enhancement, Applied Physics Letter 87 (2005) 1531071:1531073. ##[32] S. Baheri Islami, B. Dastvareh, R. Gharraei, Numerical study of hydrodynamic and heat transfer of nanofluid flow in microchannels containing micromixer, International Communication of Heat and Mass Transfer 43 (2013) 146154.##]
Thermal Analysis of Sintered Silver Nanoparticles Film
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2
Thin bonded films have many applications in antireflection and reflection coating, insulating and conducting films and semiconductor industries. Thermal conductivity is one of the most important parameter for power packaging since the thermal resistance of the interconnections is directly related to the heat removal capability and thermal management of the power package. The defects in materials play very important role on the effective thermal conductivity. In this paper, finite element method (FEM) was utilized to simulate the effect of pores on the effective thermal conductivity of sintered silver nanoparticles film. The simulation results indicate that the effective thermal conductivity of film is different at different directions and would be enhanced when the pore angle is 90. The simulation results will help us to further understand the heat transfer process across highly porous structures and will provide us a powerful guide to design coating with high thermal insulation or conductor property. Because of there is no similar experimental data for this simulation results, this paper is a comparative work among three different models.
1

100
107


M.
Keikhaie
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Sharif, Tehran, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, University
Iran
mahdi.keikhaie@yahoo.com


M.R.
Movahhedi
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Sharif, Tehran, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, University
Iran


J.
Akbari
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Sharif, Tehran, I.R. Iran  Engineering Design and Manufacture Department, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Mechanical Engineering Department, University
Iran


H.
Alemohammad
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Sharif, Tehran, I.R. Iran  Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
Mechanical Engineering Department, University
Iran
Thin film Propylene glycol
Silver nanoparticles
thermal conductivity
Heat flux
[[1] D.G. Cahill, H.E. Fischer, T. Klitsner, E.T. Swartz, R.O. Pohl, Thermal conductivity of thin films: Measurement and understanding, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, Vac. Surf. Films 7 (1989) 1259–1266. ##[2] S.M. Lee, D.G. Cahill, Heat transport in thin dielectric films, J. Appl. Phys 81 (1997) 2590–2595. ##[3] K.E. Goodson, M.I. Flik, L.T. Su, D.A. Antoniadis, Annealing temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of LPCVD silicon dioxide layers, IEEE Electron Device Lett 14 (1993) 490–492. ##[4] I. Ahmad, V. Kasisomayajula, D.Y. Song, L. Tian, J.M. Berg, M. Holtz, Selfheating in a GaN based heterostructure field effect transistor: Ultraviolet and visible Raman measurements and simulations, J. Appl. Phys. 11 (2006) 1137181–1137187. ##[5] D.G. Cahill, W.K. Ford, K.E. Goodson, G.D. Mahan, A. Majumdar, H.J. Maris, R. Merlin, S.R. Phillpot, Nanoscale thermal transport, J. Appl. Phys., 93, 2 (2003) 793–81. ##[6] D.L. DeVoe, Thermal issues in MEMS and microscale systems, IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol 25 (2003) 576–583. ##[7] X. Liu, M.H. Hu, C.G. Caneau, R. Bhat, C. Zah, Thermal management strategies for high power semiconductor pump lasers, IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol 29 (2006) 493–500. ##[8] Sh. Wei, W. Fuchi, F. QunBo, M. Zhuang, Effects of defects on the effective thermal conductivity of thermal barrier coatings, Applied Mathematical Modelling 36 (2012) 1995–2002. ##[9] M. Keikhaie, J. Akbari, M.R. Movahhedi, H.R. Alemohammad, Sintering Characterizations of Agnano Film on Silicon Substrate, Advanced Materials Research 829 (2014) 342346. ##[10] Y. Mei, G. Chen, G. Lu, X. Chen, Effect of joint sizes of lowtemperature sintered nanosilver on thermal residual curvature of sandwiched assembly, International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives 35 (2012) 88–93. ##[11] D.R. Smith, F.R. Fickett, LowTemperature Properties of Silver, Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 2 (1995).##]
Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer of Nanofluids over a Flat Plate with Conjugate Heat Transfer
2
2
The falling and settling of solid particles in gases and liquids is a natural phenomenon happens in many industrial processes. This phenomenon has altered pure forced convection to a combination of heat conduction and heat convection in a flow over a plate. In this paper, the coupling of conduction (inside the plate) and forced convection of a nonhomogeneous nanofluid flow (over a flat plate) is investigated, which is classified in conjugate heat transfer problems. Twocomponent fourequation nonhomogeneous equilibrium model for convective transport in nanofluids has been applied that incorporates the effects of nanoparticle migration due to the thermophoresis Nt, Brownian motion Nb, and Lewis number Le simultaneously. Employing similarity variables, we have transformed the basic nondimensional partial differential equations to ordinary differential ones and then solved numerically. Moreover, variation of the heat transfer and concentration rates with thermal resistance of the plate is studied in detail. Setting the lowest dependency of heat transfer rate to the thermal resistance of the plate as a goal, we have shown that for two nanofluids with similar heat transfer characteristics, the one with higher Brownian motion is desired.
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108
117


A.
Malvandi
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, I.R. Iran
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Karaj Branch,
Iran
amirmalvandi@aut.ac.ir


F.
Hedayati
Mechanical Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University, Sari Branch, Sari, I.R.Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, Islamic
Iran


D.D.
Ganji
Mechanical Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University, Sari Branch, Sari, I.R.Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, Islamic
Iran
nanofluid
Flat plate
Conjugate heat transfer
Thermophoresis
Brownian motion
[[1] H. Blasius, Grenzschichten in Flüssigkeiten mit kleiner Reibung, Z Math Phys 56 (1908) 1–37. ##[2] W.M. Kays, M.E. Crawford, Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 2nd ed., McGrawHill, New York 1980. ##[3] T.L. Perelman, On conjugated problems of heat transfer, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 3 (1961) 293303. ##[4] A.V. Luikov, V.A. Aleksashenko, A.A. Aleksashenko, Analytical methods of solution of conjugated problems in convective heat transfer, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 14 (1971) 10471056. ##[5] A.V. Luikov, Conjugate convective heat transfer problems, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 17 (1974) 257265. ##[6] P. Payvar, Convective heat transfer to laminar flow over a plate of finite thickness, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 20 (1977) 431433. ##[7] R. Karvinen, Note on conjugated heat transfer in a flat plate, Letters in Heat and Mass Transfer 5 (1978) 197202. ##[8] R. Karvinen, Some new results for conjugated heat transfer in a flat plate, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 21 (1978) 12611264. ##[9] A. Pozzi, M. Lupo, The coupling of conduction with forced convection over a flat plate, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 32 (1989) 12071214. ##[10] I. Pop, D.B. Ingham, A note on conjugate forced convection boundarylayer flow past a flat plate, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 36 (1993) 38733876. ##[11] S.U.S. Choi, Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles, in Developments and Applications of NonNewtonian Flows, D. A. Siginer and H. P. Wang, Eds., ASME 66 (1995) 99105. ##[12] H. Masuda, A. Ebata, K. Teramae, N. Hishinuma ,Alteration of thermalconductivity and viscosity of liquid by dispersing ultraﬁne particles, Netsu Bussei 7 (1993). ##[13] J. Buongiorno, Convective Transport in Nanofluids, Journal of Heat Transfer 128 (2006) 240250. ##[14] A.V. Kuznetsov, D.A. Nield, Natural convective boundarylayer flow of a nanofluid past a vertical plate, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 49 (2010) 243247. ##[15] M. Sheikholeslami, F. Bani Sheykholeslami, S. Khoshhal, H. MolaAbasia, D.D. Ganji, H. Rokni, Effect of magnetic field on Cu–water nanofluid heat transfer using GMDHtype neural network, Neural Comput & Applic, (2013) 18. ##[16] M. Sheikholeslami, D.D. Ganji, Heat transfer of Cuwater nanofluid flow between parallel plates, Powder Technology 235 (2013) 873879. ##[17] M. Sheikholeslami, D.D. Ganji, H.R. Ashorynejad, Investigation of squeezing unsteady nanofluid flow using ADM, Powder Technology 239 (2013) 259265. ##[18] M. Sheikholeslami, M. GorjiBandpy, S.M. Seyyedi, D.D. Ganji, H.B. Rokni, S. Soleimani, Application of LBM in simulation of natural convection in a nanofluid filled square cavity with curve boundaries, Powder Technology 247 (2013) 8794. ##[19] M. Sheikholeslami, M. Hatami, D.D. Ganji, Analytical investigation of MHD nanofluid flow in a semiporous channel, Powder Technology 246 (2013) 327336. ##[20] M. Sheikholeslami, D.D. Ganji, H.R. Ashorynejad, H.B. Rokni, Analytical investigation of JefferyHamel flow with high magnetic field and nanoparticle by Adomian decomposition method, Appl. Math. Mech.Engl. Ed 33 (2012) 2536. ##[21] S. Soleimani, M. Sheikholeslami, D.D. Ganji, M. GorjiBandpay, Natural convection heat transfer in a nanofluid filled semiannulus enclosure, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 39 (2012) 565574. ##[22] M. Sheikholeslami, M. GorjiBandpy, D.D. Ganji, S. Soleimani, Natural convection heat transfer in a cavity with sinusoidal wall filled with CuO–water nanofluid in presence of magnetic field, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. ##[23] M. Sheikholeslami, M. GorjiBandpay, D.D. Ganji, Magnetic field effects on natural convection around a horizontal circular cylinder inside a square enclosure filled with nanofluid, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 39 (2012) 978986. ##[24] M. Sheikholeslami, M. GorjiBandpy, D.D. Ganji, S. Soleimani, S.M. Seyyedi, Natural convection of nanofluids in an enclosure between a circular and a sinusoidal cylinder in the presence of magnetic field, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 39 (2012) 14351443. ##[25] M. Hassani, M. Mohammad Tabar, H. Nemati, G. Domairry, F. Noori, An analytical solution for boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a stretching sheet, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 50 (2011) 22562263. ##[26] A. Malvandi, F. Hedayati, G. Domairry, Stagnation Point Flow of a Nanofluid toward an Exponentially Stretching Sheet with Nonuniform Heat Generation/Absorption, Journal of Thermodynamics 2013 (2013) 12. ##[27] H.R. Ashorynejad, M. Sheikholeslami, I. Pop, D.D. Ganji, Nanofluid flow and heat transfer due to a stretching cylinder in the presence of magnetic field, Heat Mass Transfer 49 (2013) 427436. ##[28] M. Hatami, R. Nouri, D.D. Ganji, Forced convection analysis for MHD Al2O3–water nanofluid flow over a horizontal plate, Journal of Molecular Liquids 187 (2013) 294301. ##[29] A. Malvandi, The Unsteady Flow of a Nanofluid in the Stagnation Point Region of a Timedependent Rotating Sphere, Thermal Science (2013). ##[30] M. Alinia, D.D. Ganji, M. GorjiBandpy, Numerical study of mixed convection in an inclined two sided lid driven cavity filled with nanofluid using twophase mixture model, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 38 (2011) 14281435. ##[31] A. Bejan, Convection heat transfer, Wiley, Hoboken, N.J 2004. ##[32] M.M. MacDevette, T.G. Myers, B. Wetton, Boundary layer analysis and heat transfer of a nanofluid, Microfluid Nanofluid (2014) 112.##]
Study of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer of AL2O3Water as a NonNewtonian Nanofluid through LidDriven Enclosure
2
2
Flow field and heat transfer of a nanofluid, whose nonNewtonian behavior has been demonstrated in the laboratory, in a square enclosure have been numerically modeled and investigated. To estimate the viscosity of nanofluid, experimental data of Hong and Kim, 2012 have been used, and a new model has been proposed. Finally, the obtained results have been compared to those of Newtonian behavior. The results obtained by the numerical simulation indicate that the average Nusselt number with nonNewtonian behavior has a value less than the Newtonian behavior. Also for the case in which the nanofluid is nonNewtonian, the buoyancy force is often insignificant, and forced convection dominates. By adding the nanoparticles, the average Nusselt number for the nonNewtonian nanofluid increases, but for the Newtonian nanofluid, depending on the dominant of natural or forced convection in the flow, it decreases or increases, respectively. On the other hand, with increasing the Reynolds number, the heat transfer rate increases for both Newtonian and nonNewtonian fluid at any constant Grashof number, while with increasing of Grashof number at a given temperature difference and a constant Reynolds number, the heat transfer rate increases and decreases in Newtonian and nonNewtonian nanofluids, respectively.
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118
131


A.A.
Abbasian Arani
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Kashan, Kashan, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, University
Iran
abbasian@kashanu.ac.ir


G.A.
Sheikhzadeh
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Kashan, Kashan, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, University
Iran


A.
Ghadirian Arani
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Kashan, Kashan, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, University
Iran
nanofluid
Shearthinning
NonNewtonian
Enclosure
Mixed convection
Numerical
[[1] X. Wang, S.U.S. Choi: Thermal conductivity of nanoparticle–fluid mixture, J. of Thermophysics Heat Transfer 13 (1999) 474–480. ##[2] J. Chevalier, O. Tillement, F. Ayela: Rheogical properties of nanofluids flowing through microchannels, Appl. Phy. Lett 91 (2007) 233103. ##[3] B. Aladag, S. Halelfadl, N. Doner, T. Maré, S. Duret, P. Estellé: Experimental investigations of the viscosity of nanofluids at low temperatures, Appl. Energy 97 (2012) 876–880. ##[4] K. Kwak, C. Kim: Viscosity and thermal conductivity of copper oxide nanofluid dispersed in ethylene glycol, Korea–Australia Rheology J 17 (2005) 35–40. ##[5] H. Chang, C.S. Jwo, C.H. Lo, T.T. Tsung, M.J. Kao, H.M. Lin, Rheology of CuO nanoparticle suspension prepared by ASNSS, Rev. on Adv. Materials Sci 10 (2005) 128–132. ##[6] Y. Ding, H. Alias, D. Wen, R.A. Williams: Heat transfer of aqueous suspensions of carbon nanotubes (CNT nanofluids), Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer 49 (2006) 240–250. ##[7] J. Hong, D. Kim: Effects of aggregation on the thermal conductivity of alumina/water nanofluids, Thermochimica Acta 542(2012) 2832. ##[8] N. Putra, W. Roetzel, S.K. Das: Natural convection of nanofluids, Heat and Mass Transfer 39 (2003) 775–784. ##[9] D. Wen, Y. Ding, Natural convective heat transfer of suspensions of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nanofluids), IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology 5 (2006) 220–227. ##[10] A.K. Santra, S. Sen, N. Chakraborty Study of heat transfer augmentation in a differentially heated square cavity using copper–water nanofluid, Int. J. of Therm. Sci 47 (2008) 1113–1122. ##[11] M.M. Cross Rheology of nonNewtonian fluids, a new flow equation for pseudoplastic systems, J. of Colloid Sci 20 (1965) 417437. ##[12] H. Ozoe, S. Churchill, Hydrodynamic stability and natural convection in OstwaldDe Waele and Ellis fluids: the development of a numerical solution, AIChE J 18 (1972) 11961207. ##[13] G.B. Kim, J.M. Hyun, H.S. Kwak, Transient buoyant convection of a powerlaw nonNewtonian fluid in an enclosure, Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer 46 (2003) 36053617. ##[14] N. Ouertatani, N. Ben Cheikh, B. Ben Beyaa, T. Lilia, T., A. Campo, Mixed convection in a double liddriven cubic cavity, Int. J. of Therm. Sci 48 (2009) 1265–1272. ##[15] R. Iwatsu, J. Hyun, K. Kuwahara, Mixed convection in a driven cavity with a stable vertical temperature gradient, Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer 36 (1993) 1601–1608 ##[16] K. Khanafer, A.J. Chamkha, Mixed convection flow in a liddriven enclosure filled with a fluidsaturated porous medium, Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer 42 (1999) 2465–2481. ##[17] O. Aydin, Aiding and opposing mechanisms of mixed convection in a shearand buoyancydriven cavity, Int. Commun.in Heat and Mass Transfer 26 (1999) 1019–1028. ##[18] M.A.R. Sharif, Laminar mixed convection in shallow inclined driven cavities with hot moving lid on top and cooled from bottom, Appl. Therm. Engin 27 (2007) 1036–1042. ##[19] K.M. Khanafer, A.M. AlAmiri, I. Pop, Numerical simulation of unsteady mixed convection in a driven cavity, using an externally excited sliding lid, Eurpean J. of Mechanics B/Fluids 26 (2007) 669–687. ##[20] M.M. Abdelkhalek, Mixed convection in a square cavity by a perturbation technique, Computer and Material Sci 42 (2008) 212–219. ##[21] M.A. Waheed, Mixed convective heat transfer in rectangular enclosures driven by a continuously moving horizontal plate, Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer 52 (2009) 5055–5063. ##[22] O. Aydin, W.J. Yang, Mixed convection in cavities with a locally heated lower wall and moving sidewalls, Numerical Heat Transfer 37 (2000) 695–710. ##[23] H.F. Oztop, I. Dagtekin, Mixed convection in two sided lid driven differentially heated square cavity, Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer 47 (2004) 1761–1769. ##[24] W.J. Luo, R.J. Yang,Multiple fluid flow and heat transfer solutions in a two sided liddriven cavity, Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer 50 (2007) 2394–2405. ##[25] F. Gurcan, Effect of the Reynolds number on streamline bifurcations in a doubleliddriven cavity with free surfaces, Computer & Fluids 32 (2003) 1283–1298. ##[26] R.K. Tiwari, M.K. Das, Heat transfer augmentation in a twosided liddriven differentially heated square cavity utilizing nanofluids, Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer 50 (2007) 2002–2018. ##[27] M. Muthtamilselvan, P. Kandaswamy, J. Lee, Heat transfer enhancement of copper–water nanofluids in a liddriven enclosure, Commun. in Nonlinear Sci. and Numerical Simulation 15 (2010) 1501–1510. ##[28] H.C. Brinkman, The viscosity of concentrated suspensions and solution, J. Chem. Phy 20 (1952) 571–581. ##[29] N. Ait Messaoudene, A. Horimek, C. Nouar, B. BenaoudaZouaoui, Laminar mixed convection in an eccentric annular horizontal duct for a thermodependent nonNewtonian fluid, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 54 (2011) 42204234. ##[30] A. Mahdy, Soret and Dufour effect on double diffusion mixed convection from a vertical surface in a porous medium saturated with a nonNewtonian fluid, J. NonNewtonian Fluid Mechanics165 (2010) 568575. ##[31] Ahmed M. Salem, Mohamed Abd ElAziz, Emad M. AboEldahab, Ibrahim AbdElfatah, Effect of variable density on hydromagnetic mixed convection flow of a nonNewtonian fluid past a moving vertical plate, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Num. Simulation 15(6) (2010) 14851493 ##[32] R.B. Bird, W.E. Stewert, E.N. Lightfoot: Transport Phenomena, John Wiley & Sons, Singapore, 1960. ##[33] K. Khanafer, K. Vafai, A critical synthesis of thermophysical characteristics of nanofluids, Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 (2011) 4410–4428. ##[34] A. Barnes, Handbook of Elementary Rheology, Howard University of Wales, Institute of NonNewtonian Fluid Mechanics, Aberystwyth 2000. ##[35] Y. Xuan, W. Roetzel, Conceptions for heat transfer correlation of nanofluids, Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer 43 (2000) 3701–3707. ##[36] H.E. Patel, T. Sundarrajan, T., Pradeep, A. Dasgupta, N. Dasgupta, S.K. Das, A microconvection model for thermal conductivity of nanofluid, Pramana J. of Phy 65 (2005) 863–869. ##[37] S.V. Patankar, Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Hemisphere, Washington, DC, 1980. ##[38] A.J. Chamkha, E. AbuNada, Mixed convection flow in single and doublelid driven square cavities filled with water–Al2O3 nanofluid: Effect of viscosity models, European J. Mechanics B/Fluids 36 (2012) 8296. ##[39] S.Z. Heris, S.Gh. Etemad, M.N. Esfahany, Experimental investigation of oxide nanofluids laminar flow convective heat transfer, Int. Commun. in Heat Mass Transfer 33 (2006) 529–535.##]
Gas Mixing Simulation in a TShape Micro Channel Using The DSMC Method
2
2
Gas mixing in a Tshape micro mixer has been simulated using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. It is considered that the adequate mixing occurs when the mass composition of the species, CO or N2, deviates below 1 % from their equilibrium composition. The mixing coefficient is defined as the ratio of the mixing length to the main channel’s height. As the inlet Kn increases, while the diffusion of the molecules behaves more active, the mixing coefficient decreases. Furthermore, increasing the inlet pressure will cause the mixing length to increase, since the convection effect of the gas stream is more pronounced compared with the diffusion effect. Increasing the gas flow temperature or the wall temperature can enhance the mixing performance, while the effect of increasing the wall temperature is more significant. Walls with diffuse reflectors show more enhancement in mixing coefficient compared with the specular reflectors.
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139


S.M.
Hosseinalipour
Mechanical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, Iran University
Iran
sayyedmostafa.hosseinalipour@gmail.com


E.
Jabbari
Mechanical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, Iran University
Iran


M.
Madadelahi
Mechanical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, Iran University
Iran


A.
Fardad
Mechanical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, Iran University
Iran
TShape micro channel
Rarefied Gas mixing
DSMC method
Rapid mixing
[[1] R. Bacon,Growth, Structure, and Properties of Graphite Whiskers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31(2) (1960) 283290. ##[2] A. Oberlin, M. Endo, T. Koyama, Filamentous growth of carbon through benzene decomposition, J. Crystal Growth 32(3) (1976) 335349. ##[3] S. Iijima, Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon, Nature 354 (1991) 5658. ##[4] Y.X. Liang, T.H. Wang, A doublewalled carbon nanotube fieldeffect transistor using the inner shell as its gate, Physica E 23 (2004) 232236. ##[5] C. Klinke, A. Afzali, Interaction of solid organic acids with carbon nanotube field effect transistors, Chemical Physics Letters 430 (2006) 7579. ##[6] T.W. Odom, J.L. Huang, P. Kim, C.M. Lieber, Atomic structure and electronic properties of singlewalled carbon nanotubes Nature 391(1998) 62–64. ##[7] M.M.J. Treacy, T.W. Ebbesen, J.M. Gibson, Exceptionally high Young's modulus observed for individual carbon nanotubes,Nature 381 (1996) 678680. ##[8] S.J. Tans, R.M. Verschueren, C. Dekker, Roomtemperature transistor based on a single carbon nanotube, Nature 393 (1998) 4952. ##[9] J.M. Bonard, M. Croci, C. Klinke, R. Kurt, O. Noury, N. Weiss, Carbon nanotube films as electron field emitters, Carbon 40 (2002) 17151728. ##[10] J. Suehiro, G. Zhou, H. Imakiire, W. Ding, M. Hara, Controlled fabrication of carbon nanotube NO2 gas sensor using dielectrophoretic impedance measurement, Sensors and Actuators B 108 (2005) 398403. ##[11] A. Thess et al., Crystalline Ropes of Metallic Carbon Nanotubes, Science 273, (1996), 483487. ##[12] R. Andrews, D. Jacques, A. M. Roa, F. Derbyshire, D. Qian, X. Fan, E. C. Dickey and J. Chen, `Continuous Production of Aligned Nanotubes: a Step Closer to Commercial Realization’, Chem. Phys. Lett. 303 (1999) 467474. ##[13] B.C. Liu, S.C. Lyu, S.I. Jung, H.K. Kang, C.W. Yang, Singlewalled carbon nanotubes produced by catalytic chemical vapor deposition of acetylene over FeMo/MgO catalyst, Chemical Physics Letters 383 (2004) 104108. ##[14] Y.S. Cho, G. Seok Choi, G. S. Hong, D. Kim, Carbon nanotube synthesis using a magnetic fluid via thermal chemical vapor deposition , Journal of Crystal Growth, 243 (2002) 224229. ##[15] W. W. Liu, A. Aziz, S.P. Chai, A.R. Mohamed, Tye ChingThian, The effect of carbon precursors (methane, benzene and camphor) on the quality of carbon nanotubes synthesized by the chemical vapour decomposition, Physica E 43 (2011) 15351542. ##[16] A. C. Lysaght, W. K. S. Chiu,Modeling of the carbon nanotube chemical vapor deposition process using methane and acetylene precursor gases Nanotechnology,19(16) (2008) 165607165614. ##[17] L. Pan, Y. Nakayama, H. Ma, Modelling the growth of carbon nanotubes produced by chemical vapor deposition, Carbon 49 (2011) 854861. ##[18] B. Zahed, T. Fanaei S., H. Ateshi, Numerical analysis of inlet gasmixture flow rate effects on carbon nanotube growth rate, Transport Phenomena in Nano and Micro Scales 1 (2013) 3845 . ##[19] B. Zahed, T. Fanaei S., A.Behzadmehr, H. Atashi, Numerical Study of Furnace Temperature and Inlet Hydrocarbon Concentration Effect on Carbon Nanotube Growth Rate, International J. of Bioinorganic hybrid nanomaterials 2(1) (2013) 329336 ##[20] M. Grujicic, G. Cao, B. Gersten, Reactor lengthscale modeling of chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes, J. Mater. Sci. 38(8) (2003) 1819–30. ##[21] H. Endo, K. Kuwana, K. Saito, D. Qian, R. Andrews, E.A. Grulke, CFD predictionof carbon nanotube production rate in a CVDreactor, Chem.Phys. Lett. 387 (2004) 307–311. ##[22] K. Kuwana, K. Saito, Modeling CVD synthesis of carbon nanotubes: nanoparticle formation from ferrocene, Carbon 43(10) (2005) 2088–95. ##[23] A.A. Puretzky, D.B. Geohegan, S. Jesse, I.N. Ivanov, G. Eres, In situ measurements andmodeling of carbon nanotube array growth kinetics during chemical vapor deposition, Appl. Phys. A 81(2) (2005) 223–40. ##[24] Chris R. Kleijn, C. Werner, Modeling of chemical vapor deposition of tungsten films, Vol 2, Birkhauser, Berlin, 1993. ##[25] J.D. Plummer, M.D. Deal, P.B. Griffin, Silicon VLSI Technology, Prentice Hall Inc., NewJersy, 2000.##]
The Experimental Study of Nanoparticles Effect on Thermal Efficiency of Double Pipe Heat Exchangers in Turbulent Flow
2
2
In this work, the characteristics of flow and heat transfer of a fluid containing nano particles of aluminum oxide with the water volume fraction (0.10.20.3)(V/V) percent of the reports. The overall heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer and the average heat transfer fluid containing nano water  aluminum oxide in a horizontal double pipe counter flow heat exchanger under turbulent flow conditions is studied. In the present study, aluminum oxide nanoparticles with a diameter of about 20 nm are used. The results show that the overall heat transfer coefficient and the overall heat transfer fluid based on nanofluid heat transfer coefficient is slightly higher (up to about 512 percent).Nanofluid heat transfer coefficient and average heat transfer increased with nanofluid mass flow rate increases with increasing temperature and water nanofluid, fluid temperature increases and Heated (Author) nanofluid heat transfer coefficient is greatly influenced. The use of nanofluid pressure may cause slight errors in the calculation.
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148


R.
Aghayeri
Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, I.R. Iran
Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University,
Iran
reza.aghayari63@yahoo.com


H.
Maddah
Department of Chemistry, Sciences Faculty, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, I.R.Iran
Department of Chemistry, Sciences Faculty,
Iran


F.
Ashori
Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, I.R. Iran
Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University,
Iran


M.
Aghili
Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, I.R. Iran
Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University,
Iran
Nano particles
Doublepipe
Heat Exchanger
turbulent flow
Heat transfer coefficient
[[1] S. Choi, Developments and applications of nonNewtonian flows 452 (66) (1995) 99–105. ##[2] W. Dongsheng, D. Yulong, Experimental investigation into convective heat transfer of nanofluids at the entrance region under laminar flow conditions, Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer 47(2004) 51815188. ##[3] X.W. Wang, X.F. Xu, S.U.S. Choi, Thermal conductivity of nanoparticlefluid mixture, J.Thermophys. Heat Transfer 13(1999)474480. ##[4] S. Lee, S.U.S Choi, Measuring thermal conductivity of fluids containing oxide nano particles, J. Heat Transfer 121(1999) 280289. ##[5] P.Keblinski, S.R. Philpot, Mechanisms of heat flow in suspensions of nanosized particles nano (nano fluids), Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 45 (2002) 855863. ##[6] S. Lee, , S.U.S. Choi, Applications of metallic nanoparticle suspensions in advanced cooling systems, International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Atlanta, USA. (1996). ##[7] Y.M. Xuan, Q. Li, Investigation on convective heat transfer and flow features of nanofluids, ASME J. Heat Transfer 125 (2003) 151155. ##[8] Y. He, Y . Jin, H. Chen, Y. Ding, D. Cang, H. Lu, Heat transfer and flow behavior ofaqueous suspensions of TiO2 nanoparticles (nanofluids) flowing upward through a pipe Int. J .Heat Mass Transfer 50 (2007) 2272.##]
Experimental Investigation on the Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity of ZnO Nanofluid and Development of New Correlations
2
2
In this paper, the measurement of the viscosity of ZnO in ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, mixture of ethylene glycol and water (60:40 by weight), and a mixture of propylene glycol and water (60:40 by weight) and the thermal conductivity in ethylene glycol and propylene glycol as base fluids in the range of temperature from 25 ºC to 60 ºC are investigated. The results indicate that as the temperature increase the viscosity of nanofluid decrease and the thermal conductivity of both base fluid and nanofluid increase. Several existing models for thermal conductivity and viscosity are compared with the experimental data, and they do not demonstrate good comparison agreement. Finally, some new models for predicting the effective viscosity and thermal conductivity are proposed. Furthermore, the viscosity of the base fluid affects the thermal conductivity variation of the nanofluids. The results indicate that the largest enhancements in thermal conductivity are 15% and 9% for EG and PG as base fluids, respectively.
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149
160


S.
Akbarzadeh
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Babol, Babol, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, University
Iran


M.
Farhadi
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Babol, Babol, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, University
Iran
mfarhadi@nit.ac.ir


K.
Sedighi
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Babol, Babol, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, University
Iran


M.
Ebrahimi
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Babol, Babol, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, University
Iran
Ethylene Glycol
Propylene glycol
Viscosity
thermal conductivity
nanofluid
[[1] M. Chandrasekar, S. Suresh and A. Chandra Bose:Experimental investigations and theoretical determination of thermal conductivity and viscosity of Al2O3/water nanofluid, J. of Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 34(2010) 210–216. ##[2] W. Duangthongsuk, S. Wongwises: Measure ment of temperaturedependent thermal conductivity and viscosity of TiO2–water nanofluids, J. of Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci, 33(2009) 706–714. ##[3] A. J. Schmidt, M. Chiesa, D. H. Torchinsky, J. A. Johnson, K. A. Nelson and G. Chen: Thermal conductivity of nanoparticle suspensions in insulating media measured with a transient optical grating and a hotwire, J. of Applied Physics 103(2008) 0835291–0835295. ##[4] E. Hrishikesh, T. Patel, S. Sundararajan, K. Das: An experimental investigation into the thermal conductivity enhancement in oxide and metallic nanofluids, J. of Nanopart Res 12(2010) 1015–1031. ##[5] S. Ravikanth, D. Vajjha, K. Das: Experimental determination of thermal conductivity of three nanofluids and development of new correlations, J. of Heat and Mass Transfer 52(2009) 4675–4682. ##[6] W. Yu, H. Xie, L. Chen, Y. Li: Investigation of thermal conductivity and viscosity of ethylene glycol based ZnO nanofluid, J. of Thermochimica Acta 491(2009) 9296. ##[7] I. Palabiyik, Z. Musina, S. Witharana, Y. Ding: Dispersion stability and thermal conductivity of propylene glycolbased nanofluids, J. of Nanopart Res 13(2011) 5049–5055. ##[8] S. Lee, S.U.S., Choi, S. Li, J.A. Eastman: Measuring thermal conductivity of fluids containing oxide nanoparticles, ASME J. of Heat Transf 121(1999) 280–288. ##[9] A. Einstein, N.B. Eine, D. Moleküldimensionen, J. of Ann. Phys 324(1906) 289–306. ##[10] H. Brinkman: The viscosity of concentrated suspensions and solutions, J. of Chem. Phys 20 (1952) 571. ##[11] G. Batchelor: The effect of Brownian motion on the bulk stress in a suspension of spherical particles, J. of Fluid Mech 83(1977) 97–117. ##[12] J. C. Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1881. ##[13] R.L. Hamilton, O.K. Crosser: Thermal conductivity of heterogeneous twocomponent systems, Ind Eng Chem Fundam 1(1962) 187–191. ##[14] D.A.G. Bruggemen: Berechnung Verschiedener Physikalischer Konstanten von Heterogenen Substanzen, I. Dielektrizitatskonstanten und Leitfahigkeiten der Mischkorper aus Isotropen Substanzen, J. of Ann. Phys 24(1935) 636–679. ##[15] D. J. Jeffrey, Conduction Through a Random Suspension of Spheres, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 335 (1973) 355–367. ##[16] E. V. Timofeeva, A. N. Gavrilov, J. M. McCloskey and Y. V. Tolmachev, S. Sprunt, L. M. Lopatina, J. V. Selinger: Thermal conductivity and particle agglomeration in alumina nanofluids: Experiment and theory, Physical Review E 76(2007) 0612031–06120315. ##[17] R.S. Vajjha, D.K. Das, Measurement of thermal conductivity of Al2O3 nanofluid and development of a new correlation, T. (Ed.), Proceedings of 40th Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Institute, Sacramento, Marbach, CA(2008)14. ##[18] J. Koo, C. Kleinstreuer: A new thermal conductivity model for nanofluids, J. of Nanoparticle 6(2004) 577–588. ##[19] M. Moosavi, E.K. Goharshadi, A. Youssefi: Fabrication characterization and measurement of some physicochemical properties of ZnO nanofluids, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 31(2010) 599605. ##[20] M. Kole, T.K. Dey: Thermophysical and pool boiling characteristics of ZnOethylene glycol nanofluids, Int. J. Thermal Sciences (2012) 110. ##[21] Y. Xuan, Q. Li, W. Hu: Aggregation structure and thermal conductivity of nanofluids, J. of AIChE, 49(2003) 1038–1043. ##[22] D. Lee: Thermophysical properties of interfacial layer in nanofluids, Langmuir 23(2007) 6011–6018. ##[23] Y. Feng, Y. Boming, P. Xu, M. Zou: The effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids based on nanolayer and aggregation of nanoparticles, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys 40(2007) 31643171. ##[24] K. Leong, C. Yang, and S. M. S. Murshed: A Model for the Thermal Conductivity of NanofluidsThe Effect of Interfacial Layer, Journal of Nanoparticle Research 8(2006) 245–254.##]