ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Numerical Study on Low Reynolds Mixing ofT-Shaped Micro-Mixers with Obstacles
Micromixers are one of the most crucial components of Lab-On-a-Chip devices with the intention of mixing and dispersion of reagents like small molecules and particles. The challenge facing micromixers is typically insufficient mixing efficiency in basic designs, which results in longer microchannels. Therefore, it is desirable to increase mixing efficiency, in order to decrease mixing length, which enables miniaturization of Lab-On-Chip devices. This study investigates two different designs of a passive T-shaped micromixer employing several rectangular obstacles and grooves to monitor mixing efficiency with geometry change, while keeping the Reynolds number under 2. The mixing performance of these geometries is studied by numerical study and it was implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics environment. It was clarified that T-shaped micromixer with obstacles and grooved micromixer improved mixing efficiency of the basic design by 37.2% and 43.8%, respectively. Also, it was shown that this increase in mixing efficiency was due to the development of transversal component of flow caused by the obstacles and grooves.
http://tpnms.usb.ac.ir/article_2034_da536b7d34c59c483fcc918b9404b52e.pdf
2015-06-30T11:23:20
2018-11-14T11:23:20
68
76
10.7508/tpnms.2015.02.001
Grooved
Micromixers
Mixing Efficiency
Obstacle
T-shaped
M.R.
Rasouli
true
1
Biomedical Engineering Division, Life Science Engineering Department, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. Iran
Biomedical Engineering Division, Life Science Engineering Department, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. Iran
Biomedical Engineering Division, Life Science Engineering Department, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. Iran
AUTHOR
A.
Abouei Mehrizi
true
2
Biomedical Engineering Division, Life Science Engineering Department, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. Iran
Biomedical Engineering Division, Life Science Engineering Department, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. Iran
Biomedical Engineering Division, Life Science Engineering Department, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. Iran
AUTHOR
A.
Lashkaripour
true
3
Biomedical Engineering Division, Life Science Engineering Department, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. Iran
Biomedical Engineering Division, Life Science Engineering Department, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. Iran
Biomedical Engineering Division, Life Science Engineering Department, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] I. Bernacka - Wojcik et al., Experimental optimization of a passive planar rhombic micromixer with obstacles for effective mixing in a short channel length, RSC Advances 4 (99) (2014) 56013-56025.
1
[2] M.S. Virk, A.E. Holdø, Numerical analysis of fluid mixing in T-Type micro mixer, The International Journal of Multiphysics 2 (1) (2008) 107-127.
2
[3] N.-T. Nguyen, Z. Wu, Micromixers—a review, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 15 (2) (2005) R1-R16.
3
[4] X.-B. Wang et al., Cell separation by dielectrophoretic field-flow-fractionation. Analytical Chemistry 72 (4) (2000) 832-839.
4
[5] Y. Shi et al., Radial capillary array electrophoresis microplate and scanner for high-performance nucleic acid analysis, Analytical Chemistry 71 (23) (1999) 5354-5361.
5
[6] V. Rudyak, A. Minakov, Modeling and Optimization of Y-Type Micromixers, Micromachines 5 (4) (2014) 886-912.
6
[7] G.S. Jeong et al., Applications of micromixing technology, Analyst 135 (3) (2010) 460-473.
7
[8] I. Sabotin et al., Optimization of grooved micromixer for microengineering technologies, Informacije MIDEM 43 (2013) 3-13.
8
[9] Y.Z. Liu, , B.J. Kim, H.J. Sung, Two-fluid mixing in a microchannel, International journal of heat and fluid flow 25 (6) (2004) 986-995.
9
[10] A. Kumar et al., Effect of geometry of the grooves on the mixing of Fluids in micro mixer channel, in COMSOL Conference (2012).
10
[11] M. Itomlenskis, P.S. Fodor, M. Kaufman, Design of Passive Micromixers using the COMSOL Multiphysics software package, in Proceedings of COMSOL Conference (2008).
11
[12] S. Vanka, G. Luo, C. Winkler, Numerical study of scalar mixing in curved channels at low Reynolds numbers, AIChE journal 50 (10) (2004) 2359-2368.
12
[13] 1. Bernacka-Wojcik et al., Experimental optimization of a passive planar rhombic micromixer with obstacles for effective mixing in a short channel length, RSC Advances 4 (99) (2014) 56013-56025.
13
[14] J. Aubin, D.F. Fletcher, C. Xuereb, Design of micromixers using CFD modelling, Chemical Engineering Science 60 (8) (2005) 2503-2516.
14
[15] Y-C. Lin,., Y.-C. Chung, C.-Y. Wu, Mixing enhancement of the passive microfluidic mixer with J-shaped baffles in the tee channel, Biomedical microdevices 9 (2) (2007) 215-221.
15
[16] D. Gobby, P. Angeli, A. Gavriilidis, Mixing characteristics of T-type microfluidic mixers, Journal of Micromechanics and microengineering,. 11 (2) (2001) 126.
16
[17] M. Engler et al., Numerical and experimental investigations on liquid mixing in static micromixers. Chemical Engineering Journal 101 (1) (2004) 315-322.
17
[18] J.-T. Yang, K.-J. Huang, Y.-C. Lin, Geometric effects on fluid mixing in passive grooved micromixers, Lab on a Chip 5 (10) (2005) 1140-1147.
18
[19] A. Soleymani, , H. Yousefi, I. Turunen, Dimensionless number for identification of flow patterns inside a T-micromixer, Chemical Engineering Science 63 (21) (2008) 5291-5297.
19
[20] T. Shih, C.-K. Chung, A high-efficiency planar micromixer with convection and diffusion mixing over a wide Reynolds number range, Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 5 (2) (2008) 175-183.
20
[21] S.S. Ghadge, N. Misal, Design and Analysis of Micro-Mixer for Enhancing Mixing Performance. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Science and Technology 1 (08) (2014) 1342-1346.
21
[22] A.A.S. Bhagat, , E.T. Peterson, I. Papautsky, A passive planar micromixer with obstructions for mixing at low Reynolds numbers, Journal of micromechanics and microengineering 17 (5) (2007) 1017.
22
[23] L. Capretto et al, Micromixing within microfluidic devices in Microfluidics, Springer (2011) 27-68.
23
[24] J.M. Chen, T.-L. Horng, W.Y. Tan, Analysis and measurements of mixing in pressure-driven microchannel flow, Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 2 (6) (2006) 455-469.
24
[25] R.B. Bird, W.E. Stewart, E.N. Lightfoot, Transport phenomena (1960).
25
[26] I. Celik, Procedure for estimation and reporting of discretization error in CFD aaplications. ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering 1 (06) (2008).
26
[27] M. Jain, A. Rao, K. Nandakumar, Numerical study on shape optimization of groove micromixers, Microfluidics and nanofluidics 15 (5) (2013) 689-699.
27
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Thermo-Hydraulic Investigation of Nanofluid as a Coolant in VVER-440 Fuel Rod Bundle
The main purpose of this study is to perform numerical simulation of nanofluids as the coolant in VVER-440 fuel rod bundle. The fuel rod bundle contains 60 fuel rods with length of 960 mm and 4 spacer grids. In VVER-440 fuel rod bundle the coolant fluid (water) is in high pressure and temperature condition. In the present Thermo-hydraulic simulation, water-AL2O3 nanofluids containing various volume fractions of AL2O3 nanoparticles are investigated. Calculations performed for Reynolds number of 125000 to 203000, nanoparticles fraction of 0 to 0.05 and nanoparticles diameter of 20 to 100 nm. In this literature, the effects of diameter and volume fraction of nanoparticles on thermo-hydraulic parameters are studied. To perform correct calculation, different grid qualities of fuel rod bundle are studied and results are compared with reference results. Empirical studies show that as the temperature rises, the effect of nanoparticles on enhancing thermal conductivity intensifies. So it can be said that as the VVER-440 fuel rod bundle works in high temperature condition, using the nanofluids in this rod bundle can be effective. Results of our numerical study showed that by using nanofluids as coolant fluid the heat transfer coefficient increases significantly and heat transfer enhancement raises with increase in volume fraction of nanoparticle.
http://tpnms.usb.ac.ir/article_2035_c4dc82fb4d65f6ed3d96f40bf0868fab.pdf
2015-06-30T11:23:20
2018-11-14T11:23:20
77
88
10.7508/tpnms.2015.02.002
Heat transfer coefficient
Nanofluid
Particle diameter
Rod bundle
Volume fraction
S.
Jalili Palandi
true
1
Department of Mathematics, Buinzahra Branch, Islamic Azad University, Buinzahra, I.R. Iran|School of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol, I.R. Iran
Department of Mathematics, Buinzahra Branch, Islamic Azad University, Buinzahra, I.R. Iran|School of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol, I.R. Iran
Department of Mathematics, Buinzahra Branch, Islamic Azad University, Buinzahra, I.R. Iran|School of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol, I.R. Iran
AUTHOR
A.
Rahimi-Sbo
true
2
Department of Mathematics, Buinzahra Branch, Islamic Azad University, Buinzahra, I.R. Iran
Department of Mathematics, Buinzahra Branch, Islamic Azad University, Buinzahra, I.R. Iran
Department of Mathematics, Buinzahra Branch, Islamic Azad University, Buinzahra, I.R. Iran
AUTHOR
M.
Rahimi-Esbo
true
3
Department of Mathematics, Buinzahra Branch, Islamic Azad University, Buinzahra, I.R. Iran|School of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol, I.R. Iran
Department of Mathematics, Buinzahra Branch, Islamic Azad University, Buinzahra, I.R. Iran|School of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol, I.R. Iran
Department of Mathematics, Buinzahra Branch, Islamic Azad University, Buinzahra, I.R. Iran|School of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol, I.R. Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] M. E. Conner, E. Baglietto, A. M. Elmahdi, CFD methodology and validation for single-phase flow in PWR fuel assemblies, Nuclear Engineering and Design 240 (2010) 2088–2095.
1
[2] S. Tóth, A. Aszódi, Calculations of coolant flow in a VVER-440 fuel bundle with the code ANSYS CFX 10.0, Proceedings of the Workshop on Modeling and Measurements of Two-Phase Flows and Heat Transfer in Nuclear Fuel Assemblies, Stockholm, Sweden (2006).
2
[3] M. R. Abdi, M. Asgari, Kh. Rezaee Ebrahim Saraee, M. Talebi, Numerical Simulation of Split Vane in a 60 Fuel Rod Bundle of VVER-440 Reactor and Survey the Effect of Large Length Split Vane (LLSV) and Half-Length Split Vane (HLSV) on Heat Transfer Distribution. World Applied Sciences Journal 18 (7) (2012) 909-917.
3
[4] B. C. Rahimi, G. Jahanfarnia, Thermal-hydraulic core analysis of the VVER-1000 reactor using a porous media approach, Journal of Fluids and Structures 51 (2014) 85–96.
4
[5] M. Jabbari, k. Hadad, G. R. Ansarifar, Z. Tabadar, Power calculation of VVER-1000 reactor using a thermal method, appliedto primary–secondary circuits, Annals of Nuclear Energy 18 (77) (2015) 129-132.
5
[6] S.U.S. Choi, Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluid with nanoparticles, ASME FED 231/MD. 66 (1995) 99–103.
6
[7] P. Keblinski, S. R. Phillpot, S.U.S. Choi, J. A. Eastman, Mechanisms of heat flow in suspensions of nano-sized particles(nanofluid), Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer 45 (2002) 855–863.
7
[8] J. A. Eastman, S. R. Phillpot, S.U.S. Choi, P. Keblinski, Thermal transport in nanofluids, Annual Review of Materials Research 34 (2004) 219–246.
8
[9] O. Ghaﬀari, A. Behzadmehr, H. Ajam, Turbulent mixed convection of a nanofluid in a horizontal curved tube using a two-phase approach, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 37 (10) (2010) 1551–1558.
9
[10] A. Behzadmehr, M. Saﬀar Avval, N. Galanis, Prediction of turbulent forced convection of a nanofluid in a tube with uniform heat flux using a two phase approach, Int. J. of Heat and Fluid Flow 28 (2) (2007) 211–219.
10
[11] C. Abdellahoum, A. Mataoui, H. Oztop, Turbulent forced convection of nanofluid over a heated shallow cavity in a duct, Annals of Nuclear Energy 277 (2015) 126-134.
11
[12] A. Moghadassi, E. Ghomi, F. Parvizian, A numerical study of water based Al2O3 and Al2O3–Cu hybrid nanofluid effect on forced convective heat transfer, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 92 (2015) 50–57.
12
[13] J. Buongiorno, B. Truong, Preliminary study of water- based nanofluid coolants for PWRs, Transactions of the American Nuclear Society 92 (2005) 383–384.
13
[14] K. Hadad, A. Hajizadeh, K. Jafarpour, B.D. Ganapol, Neutronic study of nanofluids application to VVER-1000, Annals of Nuclear Energy 37(11) (2010) 1447–1455.
14
[15] E. Zariﬁ, G. Jahanfarnia, F. Veysi, Thermal–hydraulic modeling of nanofluids as the coolant in VVER-1000 reactor core by the porous media approach, Annals of Nuclear Energy 51 (2013) 203–212.
15
[16] K. Hadad, A. Rahimian, M. R. Nematollahi, Numerical study of single and two-phase models of water/Al2O3 nanofluid turbulent forced convection flow in VVER-1000 nuclear reactor, Annals of Nuclear Energy 60 (2013) 287-294.
16
[17] O. Ltd, User guide, http://www.openfoam.com /docts/user/; (2011).
17
[18] S. P. Janga, S.U.S. Choi, (Role of Brownian motion in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids, Applied Physics Letters 84 (2004) 4316-4318.
18
[19] C. H. Chon, K. D. Kihm, S. P. Lee, S.U.S. Choi, Empirical correlation finding the role of temperature and particle size for nanofluid (Al2O3) thermal conductivity enhancement, Applied Physics Letters 87 (2005) 153107–153110.
19
[20] H. A. Mintsa, G. Roy, C. T. Nguyen, D. Doucet, New Temperature Dependent Thermal Conductivity Data for Water-Based Nanofluids, Int. J. of Therm. Sci 48 (2009) 363–371.
20
[21] N. Masoumi, N. Sohrabi, A. A. Behzadmehr, New Model for Calculating the Effective Viscosity of Nanofluids, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 42 (2009) 55501–55506.
21
[22] B. C. Pak, Y. I. Cho, Hydrodynamic and HeatTransfer Study of Dispersed Fluids with Submicron Metallic Oxide Particles, Experimental Heat Transfer 11 (1998) 151–170.
22
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Multi-Objective Optimization of Tio2-Water Nanofluid Flow in Tubes Fitted With Multiple Twisted Tape Inserts in Different Arrangement
In this paper, experimentally derived correlations of heat transfer and pressure drop are used in a Pareto based Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO) approach to find the best possible combinations of heat transfer and pressure drop of TiO2-water nanofluid flow in tubes fitted with multiple twisted tape inserts in different arrangement. In this study there are four independent design variables: the number and arrangement of twisted tape inserts (N), TiO2 volume fraction (φ), Reynolds number (Re) and Prandtl number (Pr). Seven twisted tape arrangement in three different categories are investigated. The objectives are maximizing the non-dimensional heat transfer coefficient (Nu) and minimizing the non-dimensional pressure drop (f Re). It is shown that some interesting and important relationships as useful optimal design principles involved in the thermal performance of nanofluid flow in tubes fitted with multiple twisted tape inserts in different arrangement can be discovered by Pareto based multi-objective optimization approach.
http://tpnms.usb.ac.ir/article_2036_ddadeb1a5d716ec182eb9e7e1c2361f5.pdf
2015-06-30T11:23:20
2018-11-14T11:23:20
89
99
10.7508/tpnms.2015.02.003
Dual/triple/quadruple twisted tapes
Heat transfer enhancement
Multi-objective optimization
NSGA II
TiO2/water nanofluid
H.
Safikhani
true
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak University, Arak 38156-88349,Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak University, Arak 38156-88349,Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak University, Arak 38156-88349,Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
S.
Eiamsa-ard
true
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530, Thailand
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530, Thailand
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530, Thailand
AUTHOR
[1] S. Eiamsa-ard, K. Wongcharee, S. Sripattanapipat, 3-D Numerical simulation of swirling flow and convective heat transfer in a circular tube induced by means of loose-fit twisted tapes, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf 36 (2009) 947–955.
1
[2] R. L. Webb, Performance evaluation criteria for use of enhanced heat transfer surfaces in heat exchanger design, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf 24 (1981) 715-726.
2
[3] K. Wongcharee, S. Eiamsa-ard, Friction and heat transfer characteristics of laminar swirl flow through the round tubes inserted with alternate clockwise and counter-clockwise twisted-tapes, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf 38 (2011) 348–352.
3
[4] L. Wang, B. Sunden, Performance comparison of some tube inserts, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf 29 (2002) 45-56.
4
[5] M. M. K. Bhuiya, M. S. U. Chowdhury, M. Saha, M. T. Islam, Heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in turbulent flow through a tube fitted with perforated twisted tape inserts, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 46 (2013) 49-57.
5
[6] R. M. Manglik, A. E. Bergles, Heat transfer and pressure drop correlations for twisted-tape inserts in isothermal tubes. Part II: Transition and turbulent flows, Trans. ASME J. Heat Transf 115 (1993) 890-896.
6
[7] S. K. Saha, A. Dutta, S. K. Dhal, Friction and heat transfer characteristics of laminar swirl flow through a circular tube fitted with regularly spaced twisted-tape elements. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 44 (22) (2001) 4211-4223.
7
[8] S. Ray, A. W. Date, Friction and heat transfer characteristics of flow through square duct with twisted tape insert. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 46 (5) (2003) 889-902.
8
[9] M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, Ravi Kumar, A. Mohammadpour, M. Jamali-Asthiani, Effect of twisted tape insert on heat transfer and pressure drop in horizontal evaporators for the flow of R-134a. Int. J. Refrig 32 (5) (2009) 922-930.
9
[10] S. Eiamsa-ard, C. Thianpong, P. Promvonge, Experimental investigation of heat transfer and flow friction in a circular tube fitted with regularly spaced twisted tape elements. Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 33 (10) (2006) 1225-1233.
10
[11] P. Promvonge, S.Eiamsa-ard, Heat transfer behaviors in a tube with combined conical-ring and twisted-tape insert. Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 34 (7) (2007) 849-859.
11
[12] S. Eiamsa-ard, C. Thianpong, P. Eiamsa-ard, P. Promvonge, Convective heat transfer in a circular tube with short-length twisted tape insert. Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 36 (3) (2009) 365-371.
12
[13] S. Eiamsa-ard, C. Thianpong, P. Eiamsa-ard, P. Promvonge, Thermal characteristics in a heat exchanger tube fitted with dual twisted tape elements in tandem. Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 37 (1) (2010) 39-46.
13
[14] S. Eiamsa-ard, C. Thianpong, P. Eiamsa-ard, Turbulent heat transfer enhancement by counter/co-swirling flow in a tube fitted with twin twisted tapes. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci 34 (1) (2010) 53-62.
14
[15] S. Eiamsa-ard, K. Wongcharee, P. Eiamsa-ard, C. Thianpong, Heat transfer enhancement in a tube using delta-winglet twisted tape inserts. Appl. Therm. Eng 30 (4) (2010) 310-318.
15
[16] S. Eiamsa-ard, P. Promvonge, Heat transfer characteristics in a tube fitted with helical screw-tape with/without core-rod inserts. Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 34 (2) (2007) 176-185.
16
[17] S.W. Chang, K.W. Yu, M.H. Lu, Heat transfer in tubes fitted with single, twin and triple twisted tapes, Exp. Heat Transf 18 (2005) 279-294.
17
[18] S. Eiamsa-ard, K. Kiatkittipong, Heat transfer enhancement by multiple twisted tape inserts and TiO2/water nanofluid, Appl. Therm. Eng 70 (2014) 896-924.
18
[19] P. Rathnakumar, K. Mayilsamy, S. Suresh, P. Murugesan, Laminar heat transfer and pressure drop in tube fitted with helical louvered rod inserts using CNT/water nanofluids, J. Bionanoscience 8 (3) (2014) 160-170.
19
[20] P. Rathnakumar, K. Mayilsamy, S. Suresh, P. Murugesan, Laminar heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of carbon nano tube/water nanofluids, J. Nanoscience Nanotechnology 14 (3) (2014) 2400-2407.
20
[21] Zamzamian, S.N. Oskouie, A. Doosthoseini, A. Joneidi, M. Pazouki, Experimental investigation of forced convective heat transfer coefficient in nanofluids of Al2O3/EG and CuO/EG in a double pipe and plate heat exchangers under turbulent flow, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci 35 (2011) 495-502.
21
[22] P. Razi, M.A. Akhavan-Behabadi, M. Saeedinia, Pressure drop and thermal characteristics of CuO-base oil nanofluid laminar flow in flattened tubes under constant heat flux, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf 38 (2011) 964-971.
22
[23] H. Safikhani, A. Abbassi, Effects of tube flattening on the fluid dynamic and heat transfer performance of nanofluid flow, Adv. Powder Technolog 25 (3) (2014) 1132-1141.
23
[24] K.V. Sharma, L. Syam Sundar, P.K. Sarma, Estimation of heat transfer coefficient and friction factor in the transition flow with low volume concentration of Al2O3 nanofluid flowing in a circular tube and with twisted tape insert, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf 36 (2009) 503-507.
24
[25] L. Syam Sundar, K.V. Sharma, Turbulent heat transfer and friction factor of Al2O3 nanofluid in circular tube with twisted tape inserts, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf 53 (2010) 1409-1416.
25
[26] L. Syam Sundar, N.T. Ravi Kumar, M.T. Naik, K.V. Sharma, Effect of full length twisted tape inserts on heat transfer and friction factor enhancement with Fe3O4 magnetic nanofluid inside a plain tube: an experimental study, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf 55 (2012) 2761-2768.
26
[27] A.A. Abbasian Arani, J. Amani, Experimental study on the effect of TiO2-water nanofluid on heat transfer and pressure drop, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci 42 (2012) 107-115.
27
[28] K. Wongcharee, S. Eiamsa-ard, Enhancement of heat transfer using CuO/water nanofluid and twisted tape with alternate axis, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf 38 (2011) 742-748.
28
[29] M.T. Naik, G. Ranga Janardana, L. Syam Sundar, Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor with water-propylene glycol based CuO nanofluid in a tube with twisted tape inserts, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf 46 (2013) 13-21.
29
[30] K. Deb, S. Agrawal, A. Pratap and T. Meyarivan, T., A fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm: NSGA-II. IEEE Trans Evolutionary Computation 6 (2002) 182-97.
30
[31] H. Safikhani, M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, N. Nariman-Zadeh and M. J. Mahmoodabadi, Modeling and multi-objective optimization of square cyclones using CFD and neural networks, Chem. Eng. Res. Des 89 (2011) 301–309.
31
[32] H. Safikhani, A. Hajiloo, M. A. Ranjbar, Modeling and multi-objective optimization of cyclone separators using CFD and genetic algorithms, Comput. Chem. Eng 35 (6) (2011) 1064–1071.
32
[33] H. Safikhani, A. Abbassi, A. Khalkhali, M. Kalteh, Multi-objective optimization of nanofluid flow in flat tubes using CFD, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms, Adv. Powder Technol 25 (5) (2014) 1608–1617.
33
[34] N. Amanifard, N. Nariman-Zadeh, M. Borji, A. Khalkhali and A. Habibdoust, Modeling and Pareto optimization of heat transfer and flow coefficients in micro channels using GMDH type neural networks and genetic algorithms, Energy Convers. Manage 49 (2008) 311-325.
34
[35] S. W. Churchil, Viscous Flows: The Practical Uses of Theory, Butterworth, Boston (1988) 9- 40.
35
[36] Bejan, Convection heat transfer, Wiley (2004) 107.
36
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Solution Combustion Preparation Of Nano-Al2O3: Synthesis and Characterization
The aluminum oxide materials are widely used in ceramics, refractories and abrasives due to their hardness, chemical inertness, high melting point, non-volatility and resistance to oxidation and corrosion. The paper describes work done on synthesis of α-alumina by using the simple, non-expensive solution combustion method using glycine as fuel.Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles were synthesized by aluminum nitrate 9-hydrate as precursor and glycine as fuel. The samples were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field effect scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). As there are many forms of transition aluminas produced during this process, x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was used to identify α-alumina. The diameter of sphere-like as-prepared nanoparticles was about 10 nm as estimated by XRD technique and direct HRTEM observation. The surface morphological studies from SEM depicted the size of alumina decreases with increasing annealing temperature. Absorbance peak of UV-Vis spectrum showed the small bandgap energy of 2.65 ev and the bandgap energy increased with increasing annealing temperature because of reducing the size.
http://tpnms.usb.ac.ir/article_2037_df988229ad0d87cbfe2f408fca2d56b7.pdf
2015-06-30T11:23:20
2018-11-14T11:23:20
100
105
10.7508/tpnms.2015.02.004
Aluminum oxide nanoparticles
Combustion
Glycine
Synthesis
M.
Farahmandjou
true
1
Department of Physics, Varamin Pishva Branch, Islamis Azad University, Varamin, I.R. Iran
Department of Physics, Varamin Pishva Branch, Islamis Azad University, Varamin, I.R. Iran
Department of Physics, Varamin Pishva Branch, Islamis Azad University, Varamin, I.R. Iran
AUTHOR
N.
Golabiyan
true
2
Department of Physics, Varamin Pishva Branch, Islamis Azad University, Varamin, I.R. Iran
Department of Physics, Varamin Pishva Branch, Islamis Azad University, Varamin, I.R. Iran
Department of Physics, Varamin Pishva Branch, Islamis Azad University, Varamin, I.R. Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] X. Shen, X. Nie, H. Hu, J. Tjong, Effects of coating thickness on thermal conductivities of alumina coatings and alumina/aluminum hybrid materials prepared using plasma electrolytic oxidation, Surface and Coatings Technology 207 (2012) 96–101.
1
[2] J. Musil, J. Blaˇzek, P. Zeman, ˇS. Prokˇsov´a, M. ˇSaˇsek, R. Cerstv´y, Thermal stability of alumina thin films containing 𝛾-Al2O3 phase prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering, Applied Surface Science 257 (2010) 1058–1062.
2
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[9] I. N. Bhattacharya, P. K. Gochhayat, P. S. Mukherjee, S. Paul, P. K. Mitra, Thermal decomposition of precipitated low bulk density basic aluminum sulfate, Materials Chemistry and Physics 8(1) (2004) 32–40.
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[13] P.V. Ananthapadmanabhan, K.P. Sreekumar, N. Venkatramani, P.K. Sinha, P.R. Taylor, Characterization of plasma-synthesized alumina, J. Alloy. Compd 244 (1996) 70–74.
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[14] M. Nguefack, A.F. Popa, S. Rossignol, C. Kappenstein, Preparation of alumina through a sol-gel process, synthesis characterization, thermal evolution and model of intermediate Boehmite, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys 5 (2003) 4279–4289.
14
[15] M. R. Karim, M. A. Rahman, M. A. J. Miah, H. Ahmad1, M. Yanagisawa, M. Ito, Synthesis of γ-Alumina Particles and Surface Characterization, The Open Colloid Science Journal 4 (2011) 32-36
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[16] R. Rogojan, E. Andronescu, C. Ghitulica, B.Ş. Vasile, synthesis and characterization of alumina nanopowder obtained by sol-gel method, U.P.B. Sci. Bull 73 (2011) 67-76.
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[17] F. Mirjalilia, L. Chuahb, M.Hasmaliza, Effect of stirring time on synthesis of ultra fine α-Al2O3 powder by a simple sol-gel Method, Journal of Ceramic Processing Research 12 (2011) 738-741.
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[18] M.I. Nieto, C. Tallon, R. Moreno, Synthesis of gamma-alumina nanoparticles by freeze drying. Adv. Sci. Technol 45 (2006) 223–230.
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[19] T. Ogihara, H. Nakajima, T. Yanagawa, N. Ogata, K. Yoshida, Preparation of monodisperse, spherical alumina powders from alkoxides, J. Am. Ceram. Soc 74 (1991) 2263–2269.
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[20] A. Janbey, R.K. Pati, S. Tahir, P. Pramanik, A new chemical route for the synthesis of nano-crystalline α-Al2O3 powder, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc 21 (2001) 2285–2289.
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[21] K. Inoue, M. Hama, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Yasuda ,T. Morita, Low Temperature Synthesis of α-Alumina with a Seeding Technique, ISRN Ceramics (2013) 317830-317835.
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[22] M. Shojaie-Bahaabad, E. Taheri-Nassaj, Economical synthesis of nano alumina powder using an aqueous sol-gel method, Materials Letters 62 (19) (2008) 3364–3366.
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[23] F. Mirjalili, M. Hasmaliza, L. C. Abdullah, Size-controlled synthesis of nano 𝛼-alumina particles through the sol-gel method, Ceramics International 36 (4) (2010) 1253–1257.
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[24] Q. Fu, C.-B. Cao, H.-S. Zhu, Preparation of alumina films from a new sol-gel route, Thin Solid Films 348 (1) (1999) 99–102.
24
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Turbulent Mixed Convection of a Nanofluid in a Horizontal Circular Tube with Non-Uniform Wall Heat Flux Using a Two-Phase Approach
In this paper, Turbulent mixed convective heat transfer of water and Al2O3 nanofluid has been numerically studied in a horizontal tube under non-uniform heat flux on the upper wall and insulation in the lower wall using mixture model. For the discretization of governing equations, the second-order upstream difference scheme and finite volume method were used. The coupling of pressure and velocity was established by using SIMPLEC algorithm. The calculated results demonstrated that the convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid is higher than of the base fluid and by increasing the nanoparticles volume fraction, the convective heat transfer coefficient and shear stress on the wall increase. On the other hand, with increasing the Grashof number, the shear stress and convective heat transfer coefficient decrease.
http://tpnms.usb.ac.ir/article_2038_5ad7b27c5b728e1a8b956d8aaad24717.pdf
2015-06-30T11:23:20
2018-11-14T11:23:20
106
117
10.7508/tpnms.2015.02.005
Grashof number
Horizontal tube
Mixed convection
Nanoparticles volume fraction
Turbulent flow
F.
Vahidinia
true
1
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Zabol, Zabol, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Zabol, Zabol, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Zabol, Zabol, I.R. Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
M.
Rahmdel
true
2
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, I.R.Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, I.R.Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, I.R.Iran
AUTHOR
[1] P.W. Deshmukh, R.P. Vedula, Heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of turbulent flow through a circular tube fitted with vortex generator inserts, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 79 (2014) 551–560.
1
[2] T. Wenbin, T. Yong, Z. Bo, L. Longsheng, Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of turbulent flow through a circular tube with small pipe inserts, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 56 (2014) 1–7.
2
[3] A.F. Wibisono, Y. Addad, J.I. Lee, Numerical investigation on water deteriorated turbulent heat transfer regime in vertical upward heated flow in circular tube, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 83 (2015) 173–186.
3
[4] J. Wen, H. Yang, S. Wang, S. Xu, Y. Xue, H. Tuo, Numerical investigation on baffle configuration improvement of the heat exchanger with helical baffles, Energy Conversion and Management 89 (2015) 438–448.
4
[5] J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Diao, Y. Zhang, An experimental study on fluid flow and heat transfer in a multiport minichannel flat tube with micro-fin structures, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 84 (2015) 511–520.
5
[6] S.P. Guo, Z. Wu, W. Li, D. Kukulka, B. Sunden, X.P. Zhou, J.J. Wei, T. Simon, Condensation and evaporation heat transfer characteristics in horizontal smooth, herringbone and enhanced surface EHT tubes, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 85 (2015) 281–291.
6
[7] D.J. Kukulka, R. Smith, K.G. Fuller, Development and evaluation of enhanced heat transfer tubes, Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 2141–2145.
7
[8] C. Muthusamy, M. Vivar, I. Skryabin, K. Srithar, Effect of conical cut-out turbulators with internal fins in a circular tube on heat transfer and friction factor, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2013) 64–68.
8
[9] R. Raj, N.S. Lakshman, Y. Mukkamala, Single phase flow heat transfer and pressure drop measurements in doubly enhanced tubes, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 88 (2015) 215-227.
9
[10] W.H. Azmi, K.V. Sharma, P.K. Sarma, R. Mamat, S. Anuar, L.S. Sundar, Numerical validation of experimental heat transfer coefficient with SiO2 nanofluid flowing in a tube with twisted tape inserts, Applied Thermal Engineering 73 (2014) 296-306.
10
[11] T. Sokhansefat, A.B. Kasaeian, F. Kowsary, Heat transfer enhancement in parabolic trough collector tube using Al2O3/synthetic oil nanofluid, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 33 (2014) 636–644.
11
[12] K. Hadad, A. Rahimian, M.R. Nematollahi, Numerical study of single and two-phase models of water/Al2O3 nanofluid turbulent forced convection flow in VVER-1000 nuclear reactor, Annals of Nuclear Energy 60 (2013) 287–294.
12
[13] M. Shariat, R. Mokhtari Moghari, A. Akbarinia, R. Rafee, S.M. Sajjadi, Impact of nanoparticle mean diameter and the buoyancy force on laminar mixed convection nanofluid flow in an elliptic duct employing two phase mixture model, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 50 (2014) 15–24.
13
[14] A.A. Rabienataj Darzi, M. Farhadi, K. Sedighi, Heat transfer and flow characteristics of Al2O3–water nanofluid in a double tube heat exchanger, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 47 (2013) 105–112.
14
[15] R.S. Vajjha, D.K. Das, D.R. Ray, Development of new correlations for the Nusselt number and the friction factor under turbulent flow of nanofluids in flat tubes, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 80 (2015) 353–367.
15
[16] A. Malvandi, M.R. Safaei, M.H. Kaffash, D.D. Ganji, MHD mixed convection in a vertical annulus filled with Al2O3–water nanofluid considering nanoparticle migration, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 382 (2015) 296–306.
16
[17] B.H. Salman, H.A. Mohammed, A.S. Kherbeet, Numerical and experimental investigation of heat transfer enhancement in a microtube using nanofluids, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 59 (2014) 88–100.
17
[18] W.I.A. Aly, Numerical study on turbulent heat transfer and pressure drop of nanofluid in coiled tube-in-tube heat exchangers, Energy Conversion and Management 79 (2014) 304–316.
18
[19] S. Parvin, R. Nasrin, M.A. Alim, N.F. Hossain, A.J. Chamkha, Thermal conductivity variation on natural convection flow of water–alumina nanofluid in an annulus, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 5268–5274.
19
[20] Y. Abbassi, M. Talebi, A.S. Shirani, J. Khorsandi, Experimental investigation of TiO2/Water nanofluid effects on heat transfer characteristics of a vertical annulus with non-uniform heat flux in non-radiation environment, Annals of Nuclear Energy 69 (2014) 7–13.
20
[21] G. Dang, F. Zhong, Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, Numerical study of heat transfer deterioration of turbulent supercritical kerosene flow in heated circular tube, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 85 (2015) 1003–1011.
21
[22] A. Moghadassi, E. Ghomi, F. Parvizian, A numerical study of water based Al2O3 and Al2O3−Cu hybrid nanofluid effect on forced convective heat transfer, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 92 (2015) 50-57.
22
[23] K. Wusiman, H. Chung, M.J. Nine, H. Afrianto, Heat transfer characteristics of nanofluid through circular tube, J. Cent. South Univ 20 (2013) 142−148.
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[24] V. Bianco, O. Manca, S. Nardini, Performance analysis of turbulent convection heat transfer of Al2O3 water-nanofluid in circular tubes at constant wall temperature, Energy 77 (2014) 403-413.
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[25] G. Saha, M.C. Paul, Heat transfer and entropy generation of turbulent forced convection flow of nanofluids in a heated pipe, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 61 (2015) 26–36.
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[26] A. Aghaei, G A. Sheikhzadeh, M. Dastmalchi, H. Forozande, Numerical investigation of turbulent forced-convective heat transfer of Al2O3–water nanofluid with variable properties in tube, Ain Shams Engineering Journal 6 (2015) 577-585.
26
[27] A. Behzadmehr, M. Saffar-Avval, N. Galanis, Prediction of Turbulent Forced Convection of a Nanofluid in a Tube with Uniform Heat Flux Using a Two Phase Approach, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 28 (2007) 211–219.
27
[28] M. Hejazian, M. Keshavarz Moraveji , A. Beheshti, Comparative study of Euler and mixture models for turbulent flow of Al2O3 nanofluid inside a horizontal tube, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 52 (2014) 152–158.
28
[29] V. Bianco, O. Manca, S. Nardini, Numerical investigation on nanofluids turbulent convection heat transfer inside a circular tube, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 50 (2011) 341–349.
29
[30] M. Akbari, A. Behzadmehr, F. Shahraki, Fully developed mixed convection in horizontal and inclined tubes with uniform heat flux using nanofluid, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 29 (2008) 545–556.
30
[31] S. Mirmasoumi, A. Behzadmehr, Effect of nanoparticles mean diameter on mixed convection heat transfer of a nanofluid in a horizontal tube, International Journal of Heat
31
and Fluid Flow 29 (2008) 557–566.
32
[32] A. Akbarinia, A. Behzadmehr, Numerical study of laminar mixed convection of a nanofluidin horizontal curved tubes, Applied Thermal Engineering 27 (2007) 1327–1337.
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[33] O. Ghaffari, A. Behzadmehr, H. Ajam, Turbulent mixed convection of a nanofluid in a horizontal curved tube using a two-phase approach, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 37 (2010) 1551–1558.
34
[34] R. Mokhtari Moghari, A.S. Mujumdar, M. Shariat, F. Talebi, S.M. Sajjadi, A. Akbarinia, Investigation effect of nanoparticle mean diameter on mixed convection Al2O3-water nanofluid flow in an annulus by two phase mixture model, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 49 (2013) 25–35.
35
[35] H. Aminfar, M. Mohammadpourfard, Y. NarmaniKahnamouei, A 3D numerical simulation of mixed convection of a magnetic nanofluid in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field in a vertical tube using two phase mixture model, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 323 (2011) 1963–1972.
36
[36] S. Mirmasoumi, A. Behzadmehr, Numerical study of laminar mixed convection of a nanofluid in a horizontal tube using two-phase mixture model, Applied Thermal Engineering 28 (2008) 717–727
37
[37] Sh. Allahyari, A. Behzadmehr, S.M. Hosseini Sarvari, Conjugate heat transfer of laminar mixed convection of a nanofluid through a horizontal tube with circumferentially non-uniform heating, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 50 (2011) 1963-1972.
38
[38] M. Manninen, V. Taivassalo, S. Kallio, On the Mixture Model for Multiphase Flow, Technical Research Center of Finland, VTT Publications 288 (1996). 9–18.
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[41] A.M. Hussein, K.V. Sharma, R.A. Bakar, K. Kadirgama, The Effect of Nanofluid Volume Concentration on Heat Transfer and Friction Factor inside a Horizontal Tube, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Journal of Nanomaterials (2013) 859563.
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44
[44] J. Buongiorno, Convective transport in nanofluids, ASME J of Heat Transfer 128 (2006) 240–250.
45
[45] C.H. Chon, K.D. Kihm, S.P. Lee, S.U.S. Choi, Empirical correlation finding the role of temperature and particle size for nanofluid (Al2O3) thermal conductivity enhancement, J. Phys. 82 (2005) 1–3.
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[46] N. Masoumi, N. Sohrabi, A. Behzadmehr, A new model for calculating the effective viscosity of nanofluids, J. Phys. 42 (2009) 055501.
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[47] K. Khanafer, K. Vafai, M. Lightstone, Buoyancy-driven heat transfer enhancement in a two-dimensional enclosure utilizing nanofluids, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 46 (2003) 3639–3653.
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[48] V. Gnielinski, New equations for heat and mass transfer in turbulent pipe and channel flow. International Chemical Engineering 16 (1976) 359-368.
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[49] E.B. Haghighi, A.T. Utomo, M. Ghanbarpour, A.I.T. Zavareh, H. Poth, R. Khodabandeh, A. Pacek, B.E. Palm, Experimental study on convective heat transfer of nanofluids in turbulent flow: Methods of comparison of their performance, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 57 (2014) 378–387.
50
[50] S. Torii, Turbulent Heat Transfer Behavior of Nanofluid in a Circular Tube Heated under Constant Heat Flux, Hindawi Publishing Corporation Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 2 (2010) 917612.
51
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Experimental Investigation on Heat Transfer of Silver-Oil Nanofluid in Concentric Annular Tube
In order to examine the laminar convective heat transfer of nanofluid, experiments carried out using silver-oil nanofluid in a concentric annulus with outer constant heat flux as boundary condition. Silver-oil nanofluid prepared by Electrical Explosion of Wire technique and observed no nanoparticles agglomeration during nanofluid preparation process and carried out experiments. The average size of particles established to 20 nm. Nanofluids with various particle weight fractions of 0.12%wt., 0.36%wt. and 0.72%wt. were employed. The nanofluid flowing between the tubes is heated by an electrical heating coil wrapped around it. The effects of different parameters such as flow Reynolds number, diameter ratio and nanofluid particle concentration on heat transfer coefficient are studied. Results show that, heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number increased by using naanofluid instead of pure oil. Maximum enhancement of heat transfer coefficient occurs in 0.72% wt. also results indicate that heat transfer coefficient increase slightly by using low wt. concentration of nanofluids.
http://tpnms.usb.ac.ir/article_2039_c0704567133f157fdd391a1120bcf3a6.pdf
2015-06-30T11:23:20
2018-11-14T11:23:20
118
128
10.7508/tpnms.2015.02.006
Convective Heat Transfer
Laminar Flow
Nanofluid
Nanoparticles
H.
Aberoumand
true
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Takestan branch, Islamic Azad University, Talestan, I.R. Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Takestan branch, Islamic Azad University, Talestan, I.R. Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Takestan branch, Islamic Azad University, Talestan, I.R. Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
A.
Jahani
true
2
Mechanical Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University of Behbahan, Behbahan, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University of Behbahan, Behbahan, I.R. Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University of Behbahan, Behbahan, I.R. Iran
AUTHOR
S.
Aberoumand
true
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Takestan branch, Islamic Azad University, Talestan, I.R. Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Takestan branch, Islamic Azad University, Talestan, I.R. Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Takestan branch, Islamic Azad University, Talestan, I.R. Iran
AUTHOR
A.
Jafarimoghaddam
true
4
Aerospace Engineering Department, University of K. N. Toosi Technology, Tehran I.R. Iran
Aerospace Engineering Department, University of K. N. Toosi Technology, Tehran I.R. Iran
Aerospace Engineering Department, University of K. N. Toosi Technology, Tehran I.R. Iran
AUTHOR
[1] A.E. Bergles, Recent development in convective heat transfer augmentation, Appl. Mech. Rev 26 (1973) 675–682.
1
[2] J.R.T Home, Engineering Data Book III, Wolverine Tube Inc (2006) 78-86.
2
[3] Y. Xuan, Q. Li, Investigation on convective heat transfer and flow features ofnanofluids, Journal of Heat Transfer 125(2003)151–155.
3
[4] W. Duangthongsuk, S. Wongwises, Comparison of the effects of measured and computed thermophysical properties of nanofluids on heat transfer performance, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 34 (2010) 616–624.
4
[5] S. Lee, S.U.S Choi., S. Li, J.A Eastman, Measuring thermal conductivity of fluids containing oxide nanoparticles, Journal of Heat Transfer 121 (1999) 280–289.
5
[6] W.Y. Lai, B. Duculescu, P.E. Phelan, R.S. Prasher, Convective heat transfer with nanofluids in a single 1.02-mm tube, Proceedings of ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE) (2006) 65-76.
6
[7] D. Kim, Y. Kwon, Y. Cho, C. Li, S. Cheong, ,Y. Hwang et al, Convective heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids under laminar and turbulent flow conditions, Curr. Appl. Phys 9 (2) (2009) 119–123.
7
[8] Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, E. Grulke, W. Anderson, G. Wu, Heat transfer properties of nanoparticles-in-fluid dispersions (nanofluids) in laminar flow, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 48 (6) (2005) 1107–1116.
8
[9] S.J. Palm, G. Roy, C.T. Nguyen, Heat transfer enhancement in radial flow cooling system-using nanofluid, in: Proceeding of the ICHMT Inter. Symp. Advance Comp. Heat Transfer CHT-04 (2004) 110-121.
9
[10] J.P. Meyer, T.J. McKrell, K. Grote, The influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on single-phase heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in the transitional flow regime of smooth tubes, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 58 (2013) 597–609.
10
[11] S.K. Saha, P. Langille, Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of laminar flow through a circular tube with longitudinal strip inserts under uniform wall heat flux, J. Heat Transfer 124 (2002) 421–432.
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[12] G. Roy, C.T. Nguyen, P.R. Lajoie, Numerical investigation of laminar flow and heat transfer in a radial flow cooling system with the use of nanofluids, Superlattices and Microstructures 35 (2004) 497–511.
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[13] P.K. Sarma, Ch. Kedarnath, K.V. Sharma, L.S. Sundar, P.S. Kishore, V. Srinivas, Experimental study to predict momentum and thermal diffusivities from convective heat transfer data of nano fluid with Al2O3 dispersion, International Journal of Heat and Technology 28 (2010) 123–131.
13
[14] C. Kaka, A.S. Pramuanjaroenkij, Review of convective heat transfer enhancement with nanofluids, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 52 (2009) 3187–3196.
14
[15] C. Liu, X. Yang, H. Yuan, Z. Zhou, D. Xiao, Preparation of Silver Nanoparticle and Its Application to the Determination of ct-DNA. Sensors 7 (2007) 708-718.
15
[16] P. Razi, M.A. Akhavan-Behabadi, M. Saeedinia, Pressure drop and thermal characteristics of CuO–base oil nanofluid laminar flow in flattened tubes under constant heat flux, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 38 (2011) 964–971.
16
[17] A. Alqudami, S. Annapoorni, S. M. Shivaprasad Govind., Ag–Au alloy nanoparticles prepared by electro-exploding wire technique , J Nanopart Res, DOI 10.1007/s11051-007 (2007) -9333-4.
17
[18] D. C. Tien, C. Y. Liao, J. C. Huang, K. H. Tseng, J. K. Lung, T. T. Tsung, W.S. Kao, T. H. Tsai, T. W. Cheng, B.S. Yu, H. M. Lin, L. Stobinski, , Novel Technique For Preparing a Nano-Silver Water Suspension By The Arc-Discharge Method, Rev.Adv.Mater.Sci 18 (2008) 750-756.
18
[19] www.pnf-co.com, in.
19
[20] W.M. Kays, M.E. Crawford, B. Weigand, Convective heat and mass transfer, McGrow Hill (2005) 330–335
20
[21] D. Wen, Y. Ding, Experimental investigation into convective heat transfer ofnanofluid at the entrance region under laminar flow conditions, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 47(2004) 5181–5188.
21
[22] H. Chen, W. Yang, Y. He, Y. Ding, L. Zhang, C. Tan, A.A. Lapkin, D.V. Bavykin, Heat transfer behavior of aqueous suspensions of titanate nanofluids, Powder Technology 183 (2008) 63–72.
22
[23] J. Buongiorno, C.D. Venerus, N. Prabhat, l. McKrelT, J. Townsend, R.Christianson et al., A benchmark study on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids, Journal ofApplied Physics 106 (094312) (2009) 1–14.
23
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Synthesis and Characterization of a New Halomercurate Nanoparticles: Triphenylphosphonium Trichloromercurate (II) [P (C6H5)3H]+[Hgcl3]-
That particles are of less than 100nm in diameter called nano particles (NPS) and there are in the world naturally like volcanic activity. In the present investigation a new mixed halomercurate nano particle compound was synthesised and characterized. Triphenylphosphonium trichloromercorate (II) [P(C6H5)3H]+[HgCl3]- nanoparticle was synthesi -zed by using triphenylphosphonium chloride reaction with HgCl2,in the presence of trimercaptopropionic acid. This method is a simple and direct method. The product was characterized by spectroscopic and analytical methods such as 31P-NMR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and also size of nanoparticles were calculated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Average particles size of nano is showed about 89.83 nm Theoretical calculations were applied for the structural optimization of this compound. The structure of compound has been calculated and optimized by the density functional theory (DFT) based method at B3LYP/6-311G levels of theory, using the Gaussian 09 package of programs. Finally, the comparison between theory and experiments are done.
http://tpnms.usb.ac.ir/article_2040_2ac7c843dec935e02e62a1bc72612690.pdf
2015-06-30T11:23:20
2018-11-14T11:23:20
129
134
10.7508/tpnms.2015.02.007
[P(C6H5)3H]+[HgCl3]-
Halomercurate
Nanoparticles
SEM
Synthesis
X-ray diffraction
Sh.
Ghamami
true
1
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, I.R. Iran
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, I.R. Iran
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, I.R. Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
R.
Ghahremani Gavineh Roudi
true
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, I.R. Iran
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, I.R. Iran
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, I.R. Iran
AUTHOR
S.
Kazem Zadeh Anari
true
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, I.R. Iran
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, I.R. Iran
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, I.R. Iran
AUTHOR
[1] C.B. Murray, C.R. Kagan, M.G. Bawendi, Synthesis and Characterization of Monodisperse Nanocrystals and Close-Packed Nanocrystal Assemblies, Ann Rev Mater Sci 30 (2000) 545-610.
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[2] Y.C. Liu, L.H. Lin, New pathway for the synthesis of ultrafine silver nanoparticles from bulk silver substrates in aqueous solutions by sonoelectrochemical methods, Electrochem. Commun 6 (2004) 1163-1168.
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[3] G. Sandmann, H. Dietz, W. Plieth, Preparation of silver nanoparticles on ITO surfaces by a double-pulse method, J. Electroanal. Chem 491 (2000) 78-86.
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[4] Y. Mizukoshi, K. Okitsu, Y. Maeda, T.A. Yamamoto, R. Oshima, Y. Nagata, Sonochemical Preparation of Bimetallic Nanoparticles of Gold/Palladium in Aqueous Solution, J. Phys. Chem B 101 (1997) 7033-7037.
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[5] L.K. Kurihara, G.M. Chow, P.E. Schoen, NANOSTRUCTURED Ni FILMS BY POLYOL ELECTROLESS DEPOSITION, Nanostruct. Mater 5 (1995) 607.
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[6] C.H. Bae, S.H. Nam, S.M. Park, Formation of Silver nano Particles by Laser Ablation of a Silver Target in NaCl Solution, Appl. Surf. Sci 197 (2002) 628.
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[7] A.B. Smetana, K.J. Klabunde, Synthesis of spherical silver nanoparticles by digestive ripening, stabilization with various agents, and their 3-D and 2-D superlattice formation, S J. Colloid Interface Sci 284 (2005) 521.
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[8] S. Devarajan, P. Bera, S. Sampath, Bimetallic nanoparticles: A single step synthesis, stabilization, and characterization of Au–Ag, Au–Pd, and Au–Pt in sol–gel derived silicates, J.Colloid Interface Sci 117 (2005) 290.
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[9] K. LaiHing, R.G. Wheeler, W.L. Wilson, M.A. Duncan, Photoionization dynamics and abundance patterns in laser vaporized tin and lead clusters, J Chem Phys 87 (1987) 3401.
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[10] M. Wu, G. Lin, D. Chen, G. Wang, D. He, S. Feng, R. Xu, Sol-hydrothermal synthesis and hydrothermally structural evolution of nanocrystal titanium dioxide, Chem Mater 14 (2002) 1974-1980.
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[11] Y. Li, X. Duan, Y. Qian, L. Yang, M. Ji, C. Li, Solvothermal Co-reduction Route to the Nanocrystalline III−V Semiconductor, InAs. J Am Chem Soc 119 (1997) 7869-7870.
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[12] J.C. Clifton, Mercury exposure and public health, Pediatr Clin North Am 54 (2007) 237-269.
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[13] G. Bjørklund, Mercury and acrodynia, Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine 10 (1995) 145-146.
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[14] P.W. Davidson, G. J. Myers, B. Weiss, Mercury exposure and child development outcomes, Pediatrics 113 (2004) 1023-1029. Journal of Crystal Growth, 243 (2002) 224-229.
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[15] M. Valls, V. de Lorenzo: Exploiting the genetic and biochemical capacities of bacteria for the remediation of heavy metal pollution, FEMS Microbiology Reviews 26 (2002) 327-338.
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[16] T.W. Clarkson, L. Magos: he toxicology of mercury and its chemical compounds, T. Crit Rev Toxicol 36(2006) 609.
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[17] M.J. Frisch, G.W. Trucks, H.B. Schlegel, G.E. Scuseria, M.A. Robb, J.R. Cheeseman, V.G. Zakrzewski, J.A. Montgomery, R.E. Stratmann, J.C. Burant, S. Dapprich, J.M. Millam, A.D. Daniels, K.N. Kudin, M.C. Strain, O. Farkas, J. Tomasi, V. Barone, M. Cossi, R. Cammi, B. Mennucci, C. Pomelti, C.S. Adamo, J. Clifford, O. chterski, G.A. Petersson, P.Y. Ayala, Q. Cui, K. MoroKuma, D.K. Malick, D.K. Rabuck, K. Raghavachari, J.B. Foresman, J. Cioslowski, J.V. Ortiz, B.B. Stefanov, G. Liu, A. Liashenko, P. Piskorz, I. Komaromi, R. Gomperts, R.L. Martin, D.J. Fox, T. Keith, M.A. Al-Laham, C.Y. Peng, A. Nanayakkara, C. Gonzalez, M. Challacombe, P.M.W. Gill, B. Johnson, W.M.W. Chen, J.L. Wong, M. Andres, M. Head-Gordon, E.S. Replogle, J.A. Pople: (1998), GASSIAN 98 (Revision A. 3) Gaussian Inc. Pittsburgh, USA PA
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